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England and Its Colonies

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1 England and Its Colonies
Chapter 3, Section 1

2 Mercantilism England expects something in return for its generosity to the colonies Mercantilism: goal is to become most wealthy country in the world by gaining the most gold/silver Why are the colonies an important part of mercantilism for England?

3 Navigation Acts Navigation Acts: 1. Must trade only with England
2. Must use only English ships

4 Navigation Acts King Charles cracks down:
Created “Dominion of New England” DoNE New leaders enforced Nav. Acts, questioned Puritan beliefs, outlawed local assemblies, and created new taxes

5 New leader, same tricks King Charles II died in 1685
King James II (brother) took the throne Catholic Enforced Nav. Acts

6 New leader, same tricks Glorious Revolution: King James fled England
Parliament asked William and Mary of Orange to take over the throne

7 Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution showed that Parliament has more power than the King In the colonies, Wm. and Parliament: dissolve DoNE and reinstate colonial assemblies Require more religious freedom Begin Salutary neglect: policy giving the colonies more overall freedom

8 Glorious Revolution The only thing they didn’t do? Eliminate Nav. Acts
They strengthened them! Moved smuggling trials to courts with English judges Created the Board of Trade to monitor colonial trade

9 A Small Advantage Colonial assemblies pay the governors’ salary

10 The Agricultural South
Chapter 3, Section 2

11 Southern Life Profitable crop that saved Jamestown: Tobacco
Cash crop: a crop grown in large quantities primarily to sell

12 Southern Life Tobacco is a labor-intensive crop
Originally enslaved natives, but this proved too difficult 1. Knew the land and could escape 2. Dying from smallpox

13 Southern Life Began enslaving Africans From 1690 to 1750:

14 Southern Life Plantation Owners Free white men
Indentured servants and women Slaves and natives

15 The Slave Trade Triangular trade Middle Passage








23 Slave Resistance Ways that slaves resisted their owners: Faked sick
Broke tools Worked slowly

24 Slave Resistance Stono Rebellion: a group of S.C. slaves gathered weapons and rose up against owners; many Africans were killed whether they were involved or not Began a crackdown on slaves

25 Ending the Slave Trade, “Amazing Grace”

26 Resources Slavery The Slave Trade, “Amazing Grace” Slavery in Pictures

27 The Commercial North Chapter 3, Section 3

28 Commercial North Diverse English German Scots and Irish Scandinavians
French fur traders

29 Salem Witch Trials

30 Commercial North Diversity allows for two great movements to take root in the North The Enlightenment The Great Awakening

31 Type of movement Key figures Ideas What action to take
The Enlightenment The Great Awakening Type of movement Intellectual Religious Key figures Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson Jonathan Edwards, Gge. Whitefield Ideas World is governed by mathematical laws, indiv. have natural rights Puritan values, rededicate to God, need for salvation What action to take Experiment, rely on reason, question traditional authority Join a church, found religious colleges, read the Bible, question authority

32 The Enlightenment Ideas of the Enlightenment in America

33 North South Both one cash crops several cash crops
agriculture industry Powerful farm owners few cities more uniform population several cash crops industry Powerful merchants many cities diverse religions, ethnic groups, etc. Both Slaves Conflict with natives becoming wealthy upset with England

34 Tensions Between the Colonies and Britain
Ch. 3, Section 4

35 French and Indian War France was Britain’s greatest rival in North America

36 French and Indian War French had alliances with major native tribes of the midwest (Huron, Ottawa, Ojibwe) Built Fort Duquesne in present day Pittsburgh, but there was a problem British granted that land to planters

37 French and Indian War British sent George Washington and VA militia to drive the French out Built Fort Necessity Forced to surrender during French counter-attack Beginning of French and Indian War

38 French and Indian War Gen. Edward Braddock defeated by French guerrilla warfare at first William Pitt borrowed a heap of money and began winning Iroquois (one of biggest native alliances) joined British

39 French and Indian War French driven to Quebec City
British won by scaling cliffs around Quebec and taking the French by surprise

40 French and Indian War Treaty of Paris (1763): ended the war with France Great Britain received Canada and most of North America, including Florida from France’s ally Spain

41 French and Indian War To fight native resistance:
Brits gave two small pox blankets to natives during peace negotiations To avoid major battles, Proclamation of 1763

42 Problems Resulting from War
Brits left 10,000 troops for colonists’ safety Britain raises taxes to pay for its war debts Writs of assistance: could search any building or ship for suspected smuggled goods Sugar Act Smugglers tried with one judge, no jury Claimed rights being violated b/c no representation in Parliament

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