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Unit 13 Political Revolutions: America, France, and Latin America

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1 Unit 13 Political Revolutions: America, France, and Latin America

2 The American Revolution (1775-1783)
When American colonists fought for their independence from Great Britain

3 Origins of the American Revolution
Colonists were influenced by…. Religious freedom Legacy of the Glorious Revolution Enlightenment philosophers (John Locke)

4 Origins of the American Revolution
Colonists objected to the British government’s imposing new taxes with out their consent, “taxation without representation”

5 American Revolution Declaration of Independence-written by Thomas Jefferson, applied Enlightenment ideas

6 American Revolution U.S. Constitution—established a stable republican government with separated powers and a system of checks and balances (Montesquieu)

7 Impact of American Revolution
Success of American Revolution is going to encourage the outbreak of other revolutions French Revolution Independence movement in Latin America

8 The French Revolution (1789-1799)
“Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity”

9 Causes of the French Revolution
Inequality among Estates (social classes) 1st estate (clergy) 2nd estate (nobles) 3rd estate (bourgeoisie, peasants) Severe financial crisis American Rev, Population growth, Bad harvests Spread of enlightenment ideas questioned traditions and privileges

10 Main Events of the French Revolution
Louis XVI summoned the Estates General (clergy, nobles, commoners) to vote on new taxes for the nobles Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly

11 Main Events of the French Revolution
Citizens storm the Bastille (feared monarchy retaliation) National Assembly: -issues the Declaration of the Rights of Man -abolished hereditary privileges -created Constitutional Monarchy

12 Main Events of the French Revolution
King Louis XVI refused to cooperate Convention overthrows and executes Louis XVI in 1793

13 The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn
France at war with most of Europe Introduced mass conscription

14 The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn
Robespierre launched revolutionary Reign of Terror against all dissenters Radical leaders are later executed The Revolution “devoured its own children”…

15 Impact of French Revolution
Challenged the idea of divine right and noble privilege in Europe Removed feudal restrictions from French Economy Bourgeoisie has political power not king and nobles (Democratic Govt and social equality) American and French Rev serves as models for citizens wanting political change

16 The Age of Napoleon “ Is it because they are lucky that they become great? No, but by being great, they have been able to master luck.” Napoleon Bonaparte

17 The Rise of Napoleon General during French Revolution
Seizes power in 1799 Declares himself emperor

18 The Rise of Napoleon Napoleonic Code combined traditional laws with principles of the Revolution —all citizens equal before the law, individuals choose profession, religious toleration, abolish serfdom and feudal system * established efficient bureaucracy based on merit (rise of new French nobility) --Napoleon also consolidated power, limited free speech, and restored slavery PRESERVER OF REV OR TYRANT? * Introduced French Rev ideas to other European countries

19 The Rise of Napoleon Conquered most of Europe, but spreads anti-French feelings and nationalism

20 The Fall of Napoleon Attacked Russia but invasion ended in defeat
Army is then defeated by a coalition of European rulers

21 The Impact of Napoleon France—law code that promoted social equality, religious toleration, trial by jury Europe—Introduced ideals of French Rev to rest of Europe (ending serfdom) World—Growth of Nationalism, weakened Spain (loss of colonies), Louisiana Purchase to US

22 Restoring the Old Order
Congress of Vienna ( ) -- restored monarchs (legitimacy) --established a “balance of power”, to prevent any country from being dominant

23 Restoring the Old Order (1815-1848)
European leaders (Metternich) crush revolutions and rising nationalist spirit throughout Europe

24 Restoring the Old Order (1815-1848)
William Wilberforce—English Reformer --led fight to abolish slavery and slave trade in England --gets slavery abolished in France, Spain, and all whole of British Empire

25 Latin American Independence

26 The Independence of Latin America
Enlightenment ideas Success of American Rev Outbreak of French Rev --all seek to encourage Latin American leaders to seek independence

27 The Road to Independence
Free blacks and slaves of Haiti (Touissant L’Ouverture) rebelled --Haiti first Latin American colony to achieve independence

28 The Road to Independence
When France occupied Spain during Napoleonic Wars, Latin American colonies governed themselves In 1814, King of Spain tried to impose old restrictions on commerce of Latin America

29 The Road to Independence
Latin American leaders fight Spain and gain independence --Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia) --Jose de San Martin (Argentina, Chile)

30 Study Resources Crash Course World History
American Revolution French Revolution Latin American Revolutions

31 French Revolution Acrostic
--In groups of no more than three you will create an acrostic poem explaining and summarizing the important events and people of the French Revolution Step 1) Write French Revolution vertically and create a poem using each letter as the beginning of a line Step 2) include an explanation or summary of the following information in your poem (Louis XVI, Robespierre, Napoleon, Marie Antoinette, Reign of Terror, National Assembly, Estates-General, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Committee of Public Safety) Step 3) Answer the following question within your poem, Was the French Revolution a success or a failure

32 American Revolution Old Regime (Monarchy) French Revolution Napoleon Important People: Summary: Results:

33 American Revolution Old Regime (Monarchy) French Revolution Napoleon
Important People: Thomas Jefferson G. Washington John Locke, Montesquieu Louis XVI Marie Antoinette Robespierre Danton Marat Duke of Wellington Summary: Colonists influenced by the enlightenment and opposed to taxation without representation fought and won a revolution against England. Louis XVI bankrupt France by spending on foreign conflicts and royal life, angered citizens with heavy taxes and unfair representation Inequality among the estates, financial crisis, enlightenment ideas leads to overthrow of social order and beginning of new government by the people based on terror Emperor of France who seized power and spread French rev ideals throughout Europe by conquest and law system, later defeated and exiled Results: Dec of Ind, Constitution Encouraged other revolutions in France and Latin America Bankruptcy of France, Angered the people of France, Showed that absolute monarchies must be replaced with govt’s by the people Dec of Rights of man, Execution of Monarchy, Reign of terror, Proof that people can change their governments Napoleonic Code, Spread of French Ideals through the rest of Europe, return of monarchies to most of europe

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