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Section 1:Forms of Government Section 2:The Growth of Trade Section 3:The Colonial Economy Section 4:The Great Awakening Section 5:American Culture CHAPTER.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1:Forms of Government Section 2:The Growth of Trade Section 3:The Colonial Economy Section 4:The Great Awakening Section 5:American Culture CHAPTER."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1:Forms of Government Section 2:The Growth of Trade Section 3:The Colonial Economy Section 4:The Great Awakening Section 5:American Culture CHAPTER 5 Life in the English Colonies

2 SECTION 1 Forms of Government Colonial Government The English colonies in America all had their own governments when they were founded. Each government was given power by a charter. Proprietary - one or more individual had authority over the colony. Company - run by a company. Royal - run by the king.

3 SECTION 1 Colonial Assemblies Many colonies elected representatives to help make laws and set policy. Colonists based their assemblies on English Parliament. Parliament is a bicameral legislature - meaning it has TWO houses (bi-cameral) Virginia had the first assembly in North America - House of Burgesses. Someone in the House of Burgesses was called a Burgess. In New England, the center of political life was the Town Meeting. In the Middle Colonies… politics were a combination of the legislature and the town meetings. In the South, people were generally too far spread out, so things were taken care of at the county level.

4 SECTION 1 Colonial Courts Colonial courts made up another important part of the colonial governments.Colonial courts made up another important part of the colonial governments. John Peter Zenger - had famous trial that dealt with the issue of “freedom of press.”John Peter Zenger - had famous trial that dealt with the issue of “freedom of press.” Zenger criticized the royal governor of NY.Zenger criticized the royal governor of NY. Officials accused him of committing Libel (writing false statements that damage a persons reputation) against a public official.Officials accused him of committing Libel (writing false statements that damage a persons reputation) against a public official. A jury found Zenger not guilty. They said that as long as what he printed was true, then he had the right to print it.A jury found Zenger not guilty. They said that as long as what he printed was true, then he had the right to print it.

5 SECTION 1 The Glorious Revolution The political ideas of the Glorious Revolution led parliament to pass the English Bill of Rights of 1689.The political ideas of the Glorious Revolution led parliament to pass the English Bill of Rights of Under this act, the powers of the monarch were reduced.Under this act, the powers of the monarch were reduced. At the same time, the power of the parliament was increased.At the same time, the power of the parliament was increased. The Magna Carta of 1215 also took power from the monarch.The Magna Carta of 1215 also took power from the monarch.

6 SECTION 1 Forms of Government Question: How did representative government develop in the colonies, and what is the function of each type of representation?

7 SECTION 1 Forms of Government TypesHow chosenFunction governors assemblies town meetings elected by peopleapproved legislature, carried out policies elected by people representatives from the town made laws, set policy, controlled the military determined support of local schools, regulated land usage Development of Representative Government

8 SECTION 2 The Growth of Trade English Trade Laws Trade was one of England’s main reason for founding its American colonies. England practiced MERCANTILISM !!! (You better remember this !!!) - where nations created & maintained wealth by carefully controlling trade. Balance of Trade - England thought it could be self-sufficient if it had a good balance of trade. Meaning if it sent out more goods than it brought in. Imports - goods brought into a country. Exports - goods sent out of a country. Navigation Acts - Laws passed by Parliament that required colonists to do most of their trading w/ England. Free Enterprise - practiced by many colonists… economic competition w/ little or no government control. (Important !!!)Free Enterprise - practiced by many colonists… economic competition w/ little or no government control. (Important !!!) +=

9 SECTION 2 Colonial Trade Despite colonial complaints, trade restrictions continued with the passage of the Molasses Act of Smuggling began to be an answer to the restrictions for the colonists. Some merchants also took part in the triangular trade - sent Rum to Africa, slaves & gold to the West Indies, and then molasses / Sugar / Slaves to the 13 Colonies

10 SECTION 2 The Middle Passage The most treacherous & deadly part of the trade route. 10 million Africans were brought to the New World. Journey could last up to 3 months Africans were chained below deck for entire duration of trip. Carried as many slaves as possible to increase the $$ they could make on the journey. Show Roots Video clip

11 SECTION 2 The Middle Passage Pics. Continued

12 SECTION 2 The Growth of Trade Question: What types of trade took place in the colonies during the 1700s?

13 SECTION 2 The Growth of Trade TRADING IN THE COLONIES Types of Trading smuggling triangular trade slave trade

14 SECTION 3 The Colonial Economy Agriculture in the Southern Colonies The economy of the South was dependent on agriculture.The economy of the South was dependent on agriculture. South had small farms as well as large Plantations.South had small farms as well as large Plantations. Cash Crops - crops that were sold for profit. (tobacco, rice, & indigo)Cash Crops - crops that were sold for profit. (tobacco, rice, & indigo) Because many of the cash crops required so many workers, slavery became very important in the South.Because many of the cash crops required so many workers, slavery became very important in the South. Slave Codes - laws passed to control slaves ( ex. You are allowed to kill a runaway slave b/c of the harm they did to both the farmer and the community.)Slave Codes - laws passed to control slaves ( ex. You are allowed to kill a runaway slave b/c of the harm they did to both the farmer and the community.)

15 SECTION 3 Industry & Trade in New England The harsh climate of New England didn’t allow for much agriculture. Thus they had little demand for many laborers (slaves)The harsh climate of New England didn’t allow for much agriculture. Thus they had little demand for many laborers (slaves) Trade became important to New England.Trade became important to New England. Fishing & Shipbuilding became 2 of the regions leading industries.Fishing & Shipbuilding became 2 of the regions leading industries. B/c of the diverse economy and society of New England, skilled craftspeople were needed. This led to the use of apprentices.B/c of the diverse economy and society of New England, skilled craftspeople were needed. This led to the use of apprentices. Apprentice - Someone who lives w/ a craftsperson and learns from them in return for the work they do.Apprentice - Someone who lives w/ a craftsperson and learns from them in return for the work they do.

16 SECTION 3 The Middle Colonies Combined the qualities of both New England and the South.Combined the qualities of both New England and the South. Grew Staple crops - Crops that are always needed.Grew Staple crops - Crops that are always needed. Some slavery was needed in the middle colonies.Some slavery was needed in the middle colonies. Trade & Free Enterprise were also important in the coastal cities like Philadelphia & New York.Trade & Free Enterprise were also important in the coastal cities like Philadelphia & New York.

17 SECTION 3 The Colonial Economy Question: What economic activities occurred in the various regions of the colonies?

18 SECTION 3 The Colonial Economy Economic Activities New England Middle Southern Grew Cash Crops Participated in Slave Trade Had Small Family Farms Fishing Shipbuilding Exported Local Products Grew Staple Crops X X X X X X X X X

19 SECTION 4 The Great Awakening Words of the Great Awakening The Great Awakening came about b/c church leaders worried that colonists were losing their faith.The Great Awakening came about b/c church leaders worried that colonists were losing their faith. The Great Awakening had reached its heights in the mid-1730’s & 40’s.The Great Awakening had reached its heights in the mid-1730’s & 40’s. Jonathan Edwards was one of the most important leaders of the great awakening.Jonathan Edwards was one of the most important leaders of the great awakening. Broke society into new and old lights. (new school and old school)Broke society into new and old lights. (new school and old school) Different churches began trying to win converts to their version of faith (Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist)Different churches began trying to win converts to their version of faith (Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist)

20 SECTION 4 The Great Awakening Question: In what ways did the Great Awakening change religious organizations and leaders?

21 SECTION 4 The Great Awakening Changes Caused by the Great Awakening Changes in religious organizations: Changes in religious leaders: divided the Presbyterian Church divided people into Old Lights and New Lights memberships grew spoke out against each other tried to win converts over to their beliefs

22 SECTION 5 American Culture New Ideas in Europe As people began to reexamine their world, scientists began to make exciting discoveries and that led to a Scientific Revolution.As people began to reexamine their world, scientists began to make exciting discoveries and that led to a Scientific Revolution. Galileo Galilei - was a leading figure in this Revolution. (He demonstrated that the planets revolve around the sun)Galileo Galilei - was a leading figure in this Revolution. (He demonstrated that the planets revolve around the sun) Isaac Newton - explained how objects on earth & in the sky behave (gravity). He developed much of the scientific method we use today.Isaac Newton - explained how objects on earth & in the sky behave (gravity). He developed much of the scientific method we use today. Led to the “Age of Reason” or Enlightenment.Led to the “Age of Reason” or Enlightenment. Enlightenment - took place in the 1700’s. Led philosophers and thinkers to reevaluate how we “think” about things. (Believed in a social contract between the government & citizens. We would let them rule and in return they must do as we say.)Enlightenment - took place in the 1700’s. Led philosophers and thinkers to reevaluate how we “think” about things. (Believed in a social contract between the government & citizens. We would let them rule and in return they must do as we say.)

23 SECTION 5 Colonial Education New England - Formal education needed in order to be good Christians. Bible was #1 book. People learned to read & write.New England - Formal education needed in order to be good Christians. Bible was #1 book. People learned to read & write. Middle Colonies - Some formal education. Religion still important, but more agriculture meant people were farther away and thus couldn’t conveniently meet for church.Middle Colonies - Some formal education. Religion still important, but more agriculture meant people were farther away and thus couldn’t conveniently meet for church. Southern Colonies - Very little education for normal kids. Rich kids were sent to boarding schools to become educated. With the large plantations and farms of the South, people were too far away and thus couldn’t conveniently meet for church.Southern Colonies - Very little education for normal kids. Rich kids were sent to boarding schools to become educated. With the large plantations and farms of the South, people were too far away and thus couldn’t conveniently meet for church.

24 SECTION 5 Benjamin Franklin Most famous colonial scientist.Most famous colonial scientist. Published Poor Richard’s Almanac. Book of advise.Published Poor Richard’s Almanac. Book of advise. Inventions included: lightning rod, stove, bifocal glasses.Inventions included: lightning rod, stove, bifocal glasses. Never patented any of his inventions, b/c he said “I want everyone to be able to enjoy my inventions.” (Can you imagine creating something that could make you a millionaire and just giving it away b/c everyone should be able to enjoy it.Never patented any of his inventions, b/c he said “I want everyone to be able to enjoy my inventions.” (Can you imagine creating something that could make you a millionaire and just giving it away b/c everyone should be able to enjoy it. Started the first subscription library in the Colonies.Started the first subscription library in the Colonies. Opened an academy (later became University of Pennsylvania)Opened an academy (later became University of Pennsylvania)

25 SECTION 5 American Culture Question: What were some contributions to American culture during the 1700s?

26 SECTION 5 American Culture Contributions to American Culture art household furniture religious writings poetry architecture

27 Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 5 1.Why did England pass the Navigation Acts? 2.How was the economy of each colonial region affected by its geography? 3.In what ways did Benjamin Franklin’s scientific discoveries and inventions benefit the colonies? 1.Why did England pass the Navigation Acts? 2.How was the economy of each colonial region affected by its geography? 3.In what ways did Benjamin Franklin’s scientific discoveries and inventions benefit the colonies?


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