Presentation on theme: "Napoleon III and the Quest for Glory Chapter 23, pages 875-876."— Presentation transcript:
Napoleon III and the Quest for Glory Chapter 23, pages 875-876
The goals for this presentation are : How was Napoleon the III related to the first Napoleon? In what ways did Napoleon III take advantage of the Napoleonic legend to gain power? In what ways did Napoleon use democracy and dictatorship to gain power? You will be able to identify the improvements and failures of Napoleon III’s reign.
During the Revolution of 1848, Louis- Philippe was deposed. A republic was established, and there would now be an election for president.
When the revolutions of 1848 died down in France, there were four candidates for president. The Constituent Assembly wanted a strong executive—and they wanted the president to be elected by universal male suffrage—all men eligible to vote.
Among the four candidates was a Napoleon—a second Napoleon, Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte.
Who was he? He was the son of Napoleon’s brother, Louis, who had married Hortense, Josephine’s daughter. So, in fact Louis-Napoleon was a descendant of both Napoleon and Josephine.
That’s just a little historical detail, so in a way Napoleon and Josephine had children—but only through her daughter and his brother.
Napoleon’s son died at 19 in 1832, so his nephew, Louis assumed the position as head of the family.
He was filled with thoughts of glory, and hey—why not—wanted to capitalize on his famous connection.
He was helped by what historians call the “Napoleonic legend.” It is a fact that Napoleon’s reputation grew after his death- --and after the memories of the millions who died as a result of his policy faded away…
Louis Napoleon wrote books that glorified his uncle and “burnished” or polished his legend.
Twice this young Napoleon tried to seize power, in a way that would be similar to Hitler’s Putsches in the 1920’s— In Strasbourg in 1836 In Boulogne in 1840
He was not successful and had to flee to England. But he waiting in the wings for his time…and that time came with the collapse of the government in 1848.
Louis Napoleon played it both ways: he was a friend of the common people, and yet wanted law and order. Some said his sympathy for the common man was a trait he inherited from his gentle mother Hortense, the daughter of Josephine.
And in 1848…after the first upheaval, the French were asked to vote for a new President…and whose name was the most recognized on the Ballot?
Yes, Louis Napoleon, nephew of the glorious Napoleon.
The votes were counted: 5,400,000 for Louis Napoleon 1,500,000 for Cavaignac 370,000 for Ledru-Rollin 18,000 for Lamartine
Immediately he took steps to fortify his power. He brought in a new constitution in May 1849. He divided and conquered by allowing the various factions to fight amongst themselves. He ousted violatile socialist factions in 1849
Then, in a more aggressive move, he rescinded universal male suffrage—making sure that the poorest, or most republican voters, were disenfranchised (could not vote).
Again, this was similar to Hitler’s methods of gaining power…
He also allowed the Catholic Church to control the education system, provided it suppressed any socialist elements that would threaten peace.
When Republicans threatened to overthrow the Italian government, France sent troops into Italy to protect the pope— they remained there for 20 years.
But Bonaparte still did not have absolute power. He gave back universal male suffrage—put his “people” in charge of the military and police, and declared the Assembly dissolved.
There was violence on the streets of Paris—150 people died, but Napoleon rounded up the opponents and ordered a vote.
The official vote was 7,439,216 for Napoleon, 646,737 opposed. So now, twice, Napoleon had been elected by popular vote.
A year later, Napoleon declared himself Napoleon III, and France an empire—the second empire—his uncle, Napoleon had ruled the “first empire.”
Napoleon III would rule France as a complex dictator.
The Stock Exchange boomed—and people became fantastically wealthy.
Hospitals and asylums were established and free medicine distributed.
And in 1864, it became legal for workers to strike. Labor unions were gaining strength.
Yet, Napoleon believed in Free Trade—and signed a free trade agreement with Great Britain. This angered Prussia and other European countries.
But by 1860, the French “Empire” was running into trouble…
Opposition from many sides meant that Napoleon III allowed for more Legislative influence…
Despite Napoleon’s promise that there would be peace…foreign entanglements loomed for France— they spelled doom for the Second Empire.
The Crimean war was fought in 1854-1856—we will learn about that in more detail.
Napoleon supported a disastrous intervention in Mexico (1862-1867), where the brother of the King of Austria was killed…
And finally, Napoleon III faced Prussia in 1870—he would be defeated and abdicate the throne. The second Empire ends. There will be no more kings in France.
The goals for this presentation were : You learned how Napoleon the III was related to the first Napoleon. You know how Napoleon III took advantage of the Napoleonic legend to gain power. You know how Napoleon used democracy and dictatorship to gain power. You identified the improvements and failures of Napoleon III’s reign.