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Political Heritage. Magna Carta 1215 Roanoke Colony1583 Jamestown1607 Petition of Rights 1628 English Civil War1642 Glorious Revolution1688 English Bill.

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Presentation on theme: "Political Heritage. Magna Carta 1215 Roanoke Colony1583 Jamestown1607 Petition of Rights 1628 English Civil War1642 Glorious Revolution1688 English Bill."— Presentation transcript:

1 Political Heritage

2 Magna Carta 1215 Roanoke Colony1583 Jamestown1607 Petition of Rights 1628 English Civil War1642 Glorious Revolution1688 English Bill of Rights 1689

3 Political Heritage Magna Carta William the Conqueror invaded England Defeated Saxons at the Battle of Hastings Introduced absolute monarchy

4 Political Heritage Magna Carta 1215 Henry II Eleanor of Aquitaine Richard I “Lionheart” John “Lackland”

5 Political Heritage Magna Carta 1215

6 Political Heritage Magna Carta 1215

7 Political Heritage

8 Magna Carta Government should be based on the rule of law No freed man can be taken or imprisoned or dispossessed or banished or in any way destroyed…except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land End of absolute monarchy in England Beginning of limited monarchy (government) 2. Government should be based on an agreement or contract between the ruler and the people to be ruled Contract between king and nobles, but laid the foundation for the idea of a social contract

9 Political Heritage 3. Certain basic rights may not be denied by government Granted only to nobility, but included freedom from imprisonment without trial, freedom from excessive fines, and freedom to travel for purposes of trade 4. Representatives of the people should take part in government Denied the king the power to tax without the agreement of a “Great Council of the Realm” Parliament Magna Carta 1215

10 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Catherine of AragonHenry VIII

11 Political Heritage Princess Mary Petition of Rights 1628

12 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury Cardinal Woolsey Male heir Acceptance of Mary Requested annulment Separation of England from Catholic Church Archbishop Cranmer approved annulment Act of Supremacy- king head of the Church of England King’s “Great Matter”

13 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Arthur, Prince of Wales, born 20 September 1486 Henry VIII, king of England, born 28 June 1491 married to Princess Catharine of Aragon on 14 November 1501 died 2 April 1502 married to Princess Catharine of Aragon on 11 June 1509

14 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Anne Boleyn

15 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Princess Elizabeth

16 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Jane Seymour

17 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Prince Edward

18 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Henry had six wives.... first wife because he was promised to her by his father second wife because he fell in love and also needed a legitimate male heir third wife because he still needed a male heir fourth wife because of diplomatic reasons fifth wife because he fell in love again sixth wife because he was old and sick and grouchy and needed a companion and nurse who wouldn't give him too much trouble

19 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Princess MaryPrincess ElizabethPrince Edward

20 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628

21 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Thomas CranmerThomas Cromwell

22 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Six years later… Devout Catholic Persecution of English Protestants “Bloody Mary” Executed Thomas Cranmer Marriage to Philip II, King of Spain Mary I

23 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Mary, Philip II, followed by Mars, god of war

24 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Five years later… Promoted Protestantism Church of England Challenges to reign: 1.Mary Queen of Scots 2.Spanish Armada 3.Puritans End of Tudor dynasty no heir Elizabeth I

25 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Elizabeth followed by the goddesses of Peace and Plenty

26 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 CatholicismChurch of England Henry VIII 18 years Henry VIII 20 years Edward VI 6 years Elizabeth I 45 years Mary I 5 years ?? Puritans Parliament

27 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Henry VII and Elizabeth York: HenryCatherine Mary TudorCharles Brandon MargaretJames IV

28 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 James IMary, Queen of Scots Stuart Dynasty

29 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 James I Charles I Stuart Challenges: 1.Puritans— Church of England was too Catholic Needed to be purified 2.Money Parliament France, Spain 3. Parliament

30 Political Heritage Petition of Rights 1628 Charles I and Parliament: Divine right of kings Agreed to Petition of Rights for money to fund wars 1.Monarch could not collect taxes without Parliament’s consent 2.Civilians could not be forced to provide food and shelter for soldiers

31 Political Heritage Petition of Rights Military law could not be imposed during times of peace 4.No person could be kept in prison without being charged with a crime-habeas corpus Charles immediately violated the Petition of Rights

32 Political Heritage English Civil War Disbanded and ruled without Parliament for 11 years Imprisoned and fined many Puritans who were becoming popular with middle class Tried to force Scottish churches to use an Anglican prayer book which caused open rebellion Short Parliament-three weeks April 1640, money to fight Scottish rebellion Long Parliament-November 1640, limit power of monarch: regular Parliament meetings, end of Star Chamber trials, limit monarch’s ability to raise money without approval of Parliament

33 Political Heritage English Civil War Parliament tried to weaken monarch’s control of the army Charles used army to arrest leaders of Parliament Civil war began as people of London riot over action of the king

34 Political Heritage English Civil War Oliver Cromwell Charles I

35 Political Heritage English Civil War Supporters of the Monarchy: 1.“Cavaliers” or royalists 2.Anglicans 3.Catholics 4.Most members of the House of Lords 5.Some members of the House of Commons

36 Political Heritage English Civil War Supporters of Parliament: 1.“Roundheads” 2.Puritans 3.Most middle class townspeople 4.Most of the House of Commons

37 Political Heritage English Civil War

38 Political Heritage English Civil War

39 Political Heritage English Civil War

40 Political Heritage Glorious Revolution Stuart Restoration: Disliked military rule of Cromwell Parliament invited the son of the executed king to take the throne “Merry Monarch” More tolerant religious policies than Parliament was willing to grant Brother, James Charles II

41 Political Heritage Glorious Revolution James IILady Anne HydePrincess Mary

42 Political Heritage Glorious Revolution James IIMary of ModenaPrince James

43 Political Heritage Glorious Revolution Princess Mary Prince James James II

44 Political Heritage Glorious Revolution Princess Mary 1662 Prince James 1688 James II Protestant Catholic

45 Political Heritage English Bill of Rights 1689 Mary IIWilliam III of Orange

46 Political Heritage English Bill of Rights 1689 Englishmen possessed certain unchangeable civil and political rights: 1.Freedom from royal interference with the law (Sovereign was forbidden to establish his own courts or to act as a judge himself) 2.Freedom from taxation by royal privilege, without agreement by Parliament 3.Freedom to petition the King 4.Freedom from a peace time standing army, without agreement by Parliament 5.Freedom (for Protestants) to have arms for defense, as allowed by law

47 Political Heritage English Bill of Rights 1689 Englishmen possessed certain unchangeable civil and political rights: 6.Freedom to elect members of Parliament without interference from the Sovereign 7.Freedom of speech in Parliament, in that proceedings in Parliament were not to be questioned in courts or in any body outside Parliament itself (the basis of modern parliamentary privilege) 8.Freedom from cruel and unusual punishments, and excessive bail 9.Freedom from fines and forfeitures without trial

48 Political Heritage English Bill of Rights 1689 Englishmen possessed certain unchangeable civil and political rights: 10. Sovereign does not have a divine right to rule 11. Sovereign rules with the consent of the people’s representatives in Parliament

49 Political Heritage English Bill of Rights 1689 Declarations and clarifications: 1.Flight of James II from England amounted to abdication of the throne 2.Roman Catholics could not be king or queen of England 3.Sovereign was required to swear a coronation oath to maintain the Protestant religion 4.William and Mary were the successors of James II 5.Sovereign was required to summon Parliament frequently

50 Political Heritage English Bill of Rights 1689 Declarations and clarifications: 1.Flight of James from England amounted to abdication of the throne 2.Roman Catholics could not be king or queen of England 3.Sovereign was required to swear a coronation oath to maintain the Protestant religion 4.William and Mary were the successors of James II 5.Sovereign was required to summon Parliament frequently


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