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Revolutions Glorious, American, French, and Latin American.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolutions Glorious, American, French, and Latin American."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolutions Glorious, American, French, and Latin American

2 Glorious Revolution Succession of England’s rulers: Queen Elizabeth I James I Charles I Oliver Cromwell Charles II William and Mary Elizabeth’s Nephew James’ son Elder son of Charles I; Free of military rule Had James I executed for treason Protestant Rulers James II Charles II’s son; Catholic NO HEIR TO THRONE

3 Precursors to the Glorious Revolution Monarchs Defy Parliament –Kings offend Parliament; refuse Puritan reforms –Charles signs “Petition of Right” Says that Law is higher than King English Civil War: limits power of kings –Charles supporters vs. Parliament supporters Cavaliers vs. Roundheads Oliver Cromwell=leader of “roundheads” –Brought Charles to trial for treason (later executed) -No imprisonment w/o due cause -Can’t levy taxed w/o Parliament -No housing of soldiers in homes -Won’t impose martial law

4 Cromwell’s England Abolished monarchy Created a “Commonwealth” Later becomes a Military Dictator Strict Puritan –Religious toleration for all Christians (EXCEPT Catholics)

5 Causes of the Glorious Revolution 1. Restoration = when Charles II restored the monarchy in England “Habeas Corpus” “Habeas Corpus” 2. Succession of the throne Charles II had no legitimate child Charles II had no legitimate child Brother James (II)---Catholic Brother James (II)---Catholic Whigs (opposed) vs. Tories (supported) Whigs (opposed) vs. Tories (supported) 3. James II = king; displays of Catholicism offend Puritans Document ordering prisoner to be brought before a judge for charges to be read

6 Glorious Revolution Parliament asks Mary (Protestant daughter of James II) and husband, William of Orange, to overthrow James II Parliament asks Mary (Protestant daughter of James II) and husband, William of Orange, to overthrow James II Why? Why? Parliament fearful of Catholic succession & to Save Protestantism!!! Parliament fearful of Catholic succession & to Save Protestantism!!! James fled to France when William’s army embarks James fled to France when William’s army embarks Why Glorious Revolution is “glorious”? Why Glorious Revolution is “glorious”? War of no bloodshed William & Mary = new rulers War of no bloodshed William & Mary = new rulers

7 Results of Glorious Revolution England Protestant once again England Protestant once again W & M vow to recognize Parliament W & M vow to recognize Parliament Constitutional Monarchy (created) Constitutional Monarchy (created) Bill of Rights Bill of Rights Cabinet Cabinet

8 Glorious Revolution Warm-UP 1. During the English Civil War, who supported Charles and who supported Parliament? 2. What type of ruler was Cromwell? 3. How did James II offend the people of England? 4. Why were William and Mary asked to come to England? Cavaliers; Roundheads Military Dictator Flaunted his “Catholicism” Save Protestantism!

9 Pre-Cursor to Troubles….  1651: Britain passes the Navigation Acts  CONS: Prevented colonies from selling valuable goods to anyone EXCEPT Britain Colonists pad high taxes for non-British goods  PROS:  Colonial merchants thrived under this system

10 American Revolution: Causes 1. King George III passes new taxes to fund various wars A. Stamp Act Colonists must pay “tax” for official stamp on wills, deeds, newspapers, etc. B. Tea Tax: Tax on colonist’s tea Leads to Boston Tea Party British close port of Boston  Tactics by British outrage colonists, leads to calls for independence

11 The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775

12 Battle 2. Lexington and Concord American and British militias exchange gunfire  Official beginning of the American Revolution

13 3. Enlightenment Influence  Justifies independence  Colonists want same rights as people of Britain  Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson  Based on the ideas of Locke  “Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness”

14 Battle of Yorktown  Why colonists successful: 1. Motivation 2. Overconfident British general’s mistakes 3. Time Alliance with FRANCE King Louis XVI rivalry w/England 4. Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown Couldn’t escape---allows Americans to win war for their independence

15 The Battle of Yorktown (1781)

16 Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 “The World Turned Upside Down!”

17 America: The Republic  Articles of Confederation (weak—didn’t work) Created to govern new republic  New Constitution (new governing document)  Federal System (strong central gov like ideas of Montesquieu) Power divided between national and state govs Bill of Rights  First 10 Amendments to the Constitution Examples: Freedoms of speech, religion; right to bear arms; no unlawful search and seizure

18 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation A unicameral Congress [9 of 13 votes to pass a law]. 13 out of 13 to amend. Representatives were frequently absent. Could not tax or raise armies. No executive or judicial branches.

19 The French Monarchy Marie Antoinette Louis XVI

20 French Revolution: Causes 1. Social System of France = “OLD REGIME” –Social & Political system Divided into “Estates” (social classes) Divided into “Estates” (social classes) Who Made Up each Social Class? Who Made Up each Social Class? 1 st Estate =CLERGY and 2 nd Estate = NOBLES 1 st Estate =CLERGY and 2 nd Estate = NOBLES –1 st & 2 nd estates had privileges (no taxes; high offices); made up 3 % of population 3 rd Estate: 97% of population (no privileges) 3 rd Estate: 97% of population (no privileges) 1.Bourgeoisie (middle class) 2.Workers ***POOREST 3.Peasants ***Largest ALL IN 3 rd ESTATE WERE HEAVILY TAXED!!!

21 French Revolution Causes 1. France under “OLD REGIME” 2. Resentment among lower classes 3. New ideas gov.) via the Enlightenment 4. Economic problems (extravagant spending by leaders) 5. Weak leadership (Louis XVI)

22 French Revolution Tennis Court Oath: Tennis Court Oath: Delegates of Third Estate named themselves the “National Assembly” Delegates of Third Estate named themselves the “National Assembly” Locked out of meeting room; broke in to an indoor tennis court Locked out of meeting room; broke in to an indoor tennis court –Vowed to remain until they wrote a new constitution

23 Bastille Mob storms Bastille (= French PRISON) Mob storms Bastille (= French PRISON) Stormed to find Gunpowder & Arms Stormed to find Gunpowder & Arms Mob overwhelmed guards and seized control of prison Mob overwhelmed guards and seized control of prison Prison fell under the control of mob Prison fell under the control of mob –Many guards, etc. were killed during attack –Bastille Day; “National Celebration” (similar to our 4 th of July)

24 “Storming of the Bastille” (July 14, 1789) It was the French Royal Prison (located in Paris). It was the French Royal Prison (located in Paris). Mob stormed it to find gunpowder and bullets. Mob stormed it to find gunpowder and bullets. The Paris mob seized control and took apart the Bastille, brick by brick. The Paris mob seized control and took apart the Bastille, brick by brick. It became known as “Bastille Day”, the celebration of French Independence, similar to the 4 th of July in U.S. history. It became known as “Bastille Day”, the celebration of French Independence, similar to the 4 th of July in U.S. history.

25 French Revolution Reforms by Assembly (Rights of Man) Reforms by Assembly (Rights of Man) –http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/rightsof.asp Jacobins = Radical political organization in control of French government Jacobins = Radical political organization in control of French government Led by Maximilien Robespierre Led by Maximilien Robespierre

26 Reign of Terror Maximilien Robespierre Maximilien Robespierre –Jacobin—gained control of France –Ruled as a Dictator Rule known as “Reign of Terror” Rule known as “Reign of Terror” Robespierre executed “Enemies of the Revolution” Robespierre executed “Enemies of the Revolution” –Individuals who challenged his rule –Around 40,000 were executed –85% were peasants/middle class members **Reign ended when Robespierre was executed via the GUILLOTINE

27 Execution of Louis XVI Execution of Louis XVI: Execution of Louis XVI: –Louis XVI finds France unsafe for him  He is too disliked due to his extravagant actions –Attempted to escape France –Found guilty of TREASON –Sentenced to DEATH by Guillotine

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29 Napoleon Bonaparte Commander of French armies Commander of French armies Appointed by French Directory (legislature) Appointed by French Directory (legislature) Directory dissolved (no more) Directory dissolved (no more) Napoleon gains control of France: Napoleon gains control of France: –Napoleon takes advantage of Directory being dissolved; quickly & suddenly seized power –Known as a “coup d’etat”

30 Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon’s Question: How do I control my empire? Napoleon’s Question: How do I control my empire? Napoleonic Code Napoleonic Code –System of laws –Gave France a uniform set of laws –Eliminated many injustices In actuality code did the following: In actuality code did the following: –Limited liberty –Promoted order & authority over individual rights

31 Napoleon Bonaparte Becomes emperor of France Becomes emperor of France Begins to conquer much of Europe Begins to conquer much of Europe Napoleon’s empire soon collapsed due to his actions Napoleon’s empire soon collapsed due to his actions Waterloo: Waterloo: –Napoleon’s DEFEAT! Defeat that ended Napoleon’s last bid of power (Hundred Days) Defeat that ended Napoleon’s last bid of power (Hundred Days) Result: Result: –Napoleon EXILED to remote island (dies there)

32 Congress of Vienna Restored the Old Order: Restored the Old Order: HOW: HOW: 1. Strengthened countries around France –Merged some countries; others independent 2. Didn’t want France to be too STRONG 3. Major Power: similar boundaries as in Legitimacy: restored rulers to thrones 5. Successful peace meeting (40 years of peace)

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34 Results of French Revolution 1. Latin American colony rebellions 2. New philosophies emerge: 3. Conservatism (Traditional government) 4. Liberalism (Individual freedoms; Parliament) 5. Nationalism (Drastic changes; Democracy)

35 Warm Up (French Rev) French society was divided into. French society was divided into. –1 st : –2 nd : –3 rd : Who paid the majority of France’s taxes? Who paid the majority of France’s taxes? What percentage of the population did they make up? What percentage of the population did they make up? Created by Napoleon for order. Created by Napoleon for order. Battle where Napoleon was defeated. Battle where Napoleon was defeated. Estates Clergy Nobility Middle Class; Poor 3 rd Estate 97% Napoleonic Code Waterloo

36 Latin American Society 1. : people born in Spain, but living in Latin America; top of Sp-Am society 2. : Spaniards born in Latin America Couldn’t hold high political office Could become officers in Spanish armies Controlled land, wealth, and power in Spanish colonies 3. Mestizos 4. Mulattos (mixed Sp and African) 5. Enslaved Africans 6. Indians Peninsular Creoles

37 Haitian Revolution French colony (Saint Domingue) Rebellion led by Toussaint L’Ouverture Former slave Why Rebel? Enslaved Africans tired of treatment by white masters Uprising led by L’Ouverture Unique because involved enslaved peoples Ideas for Independence came from American and French Revolutions

38 South American Independence Creole Generals and Independence Simon Bolivar Liberated present day countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama  Created “Gran Colombia” Jose de San Martin Liberated Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador Together both men liberated various parts of northern and southern South America

39 Mexico’s Independence Led by Padre (father) Miguel Hidalgo Fiery speech to incite rebellion Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”) 80,000 criollos joined Hidalgo for rebellion Eventually captured and executed Other padres and generals finished the plight of Mexico’s independence (1821) Agustin de Iturbide

40 Brazil’s Revolution? Portuguese colony Portuguese royal family rules from Brazil Dom Pedro (son) People of Brazil ask NOT to be a colony again Dom Pedro agrees and grants Brazil its independence Independence won without violent upheavals or bloodshed


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