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Presentation on theme: "PUTTING DOWN ROOTS: FAMILIES IN AN ATLANTIC EMPIRE America: Past and Present Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:


2 Sources of Stability: New England Colonies of the Seventeenth Century F New Englanders replicated traditional English social order F Contrasted with experience in other English colonies F Explanation lies in development of Puritan families

3 Immigrant Families and New Social Order F Puritans believed God ordained the family F Reproduce patriarchal English family structure in New England F Greater longevity in New England results in “invention” of grandparents F Multigenerational families strengthen social stability

4 A Commonwealth of Families F Most New Englanders married neighbors of whom parents approved F New England towns collections of interrelated households F Church membership associated with certain families F Education provided by the family

5 Women’s Lives in Puritan New England F Women not legally equal with men F Marriages based on mutual love F Most Women contributed to society as – wives and mothers – church members – small-scale farmers F Women accommodated themselves to roles they believed God ordained

6 Rank and Status in New England Society F Absence of very rich necessitates creation of new social order F New England social order becomes – local gentry of prominent, pious families – large population of independent yeomen landowners loyal to local community – small population of landless laborers, servants, poor

7 The Planters’ World F imbalanced sex ratio among immigrants F high death rate F scattered population

8 Family Life in a Perilous Environment F Normal family life impossible in Virginia – Mostly young male indentured servants – Most immigrants soon died – In marriages, one spouse often died within a decade F Serial marriages, extended families common F Orphaned children raised by strangers

9 Women in Chesapeake Society F Scarcity gives some women bargaining power in marriage market F Women without family protection vulnerable to sexual exploitation F Childbearing extremely dangerous F Chesapeake women died 20 years earlier than women in New England

10 Rank and Status in Plantation Society: The Gentry F Tobacco the basis of Chesapeake wealth F Great planters few but dominant –Arrive with capital to invest in workers –Amass huge tracts of land –Gentry see servants as possessions F Early gentry become stable ruling elite by 1700

11 Rank and Status in Plantation Society: The Freemen F The largest class in Chesapeake society F Most freed at the end of indenture F Live on the edge of poverty

12 Rank and Status in Plantation Society: Indentured Servants F Servitude a temporary status F Conditions harsh F Servants regard their bondage as slavery F Planters fear rebellion

13 Rank and Status in Plantation Society: Post-1680s Stability F Gentry ranks open to people with capital before 1680 F Demographic shift after 1680 creates creole elite F Ownership of slaves consolidates planter wealth and position F Freemen find advancement more difficult

14 Rank and Status in Plantation Society: A Dispersed Population F Large-scale tobacco cultivation requires – great landholdings – ready access to water-borne commerce F Result: population dispersed along great tidal rivers F Virginia a rural society devoid of towns

15 Race and Freedom in British America F Indians decimated by disease F European indentured servant-pool wanes after 1660 F Enslaved Africans fill demand for labor

16 Roots of Slavery F First Africans to Virginia in 1619 F Status of Africans in Virginia unclear for 50 years F Rising black population in Virginia after 1672 prompts stricter slave laws –Africans defined as slaves for life –Slave status passed on to children –White masters possess total control of slave life and labor –Mixing of races not tolerated

17 Constructing African American Identities: Geography’s Influence F Slave experience differed from place to place F Majority of S. Carolina population black F Nearly half Virginia population black F Blacks much less numerous in New England and the Middle Colonies

18 Constructing African-American Identities: African Initiatives F Older black population tended to look down on recent arrivals from Africa F All Africans participated in creating an African-American culture – Required an imaginative reshaping of African and European customs. F By 1720 African population, culture self- sustaining

19 African-American Identities: Slave Resistance F Widespread resentment of debased status F Armed resistance such as S. Carolina’s Stono Rebellion of 1739 a threat F Runaways common in colonial America F Black mariners, other travelers link African- American communities

20 Commercial Blueprint for Empire F English leaders ignore colonies until 1650s F Restored monarchy of Charles II recognized value of colonial trade F Navigation Acts passed to regulate, protect, glean revenue from commerce

21 Response to Economic Competition F “Mercantilism” a misleading term for English commercial regulation F Regulations emerge as ad hoc responses to particular problems F Varieties of motivation –Crown wants money –English merchants want to exclude Dutch –Parliament wants stronger Navy—encourage domestic shipbuilding industry –Everyone wants better balance of trade

22 An Empire of Trade: The Navigation Act of 1660 F Ships engage in English colonial trade – Must be made in England (or America) – Must carry a crew at least 75% English F Enumerated goods only to English ports – 1660 list included tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyes, ginger – molasses, rice, naval stores also

23 An Empire of Trade: The Navigation Act of 1663 F Goods shipped to English colonies must pass through England F Increased price paid by colonial consumers

24 An Empire of Trade: Implementing the Acts F Navigation Acts spark Anglo-Dutch trade wars F New England merchants skirt laws F English revisions tighten loopholes F Board of Trade created F Navigation Acts eventually benefit colonial merchants

25 Colonial Gentry in Revolt: F English colonies experience unrest at the end of the seventeenth century F Unrest not social revolution but contest between gentry “ins” and “outs” F Winners gain legitimacy for their rule

26 Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion F Nathaniel Bacon leads rebellion, 1676 F Rebellion allows small farmers, blacks and women to join, demand reforms F Governor William Berkeley regains control F Rebellion collapses after Bacon’s death F Gentry recovers positions, unite over next decades to oppose royal governors

27 The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: King Philip’s War F Metacomet leads Wampanoag- Narragansett alliance against colonists F Colonists struggle to unite, defeat Indians F Deaths total 1,000+ Indians and colonists

28 Glorious Revolution: The Dominion of New England F King James II establishes “Dominion of New England” – Colonial charters annulled – Colonies from Maine to New Jersey united – Edmund Andros appointed governor F news of James II’s overthrow sparks rebellion in Massachusetts

29 The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: Outcomes F Andros deposed F William III and Mary II give Massachusetts a new charter – Incorporates Plymouth – Transfers franchise from "saints" to those with property

30 Contagion of Witchcraft F Charges of witchcraft common – Accused witches thought to have made a compact with the devil F Salem panic of 1691 much larger in scope than previous accusations F 20 victims dead before trials halted in late summer of 1692 F Causes include factionalism, economics

31 The Glorious Revolution in New York F News of James II’s overthrow prompts crisis of authority in New York F Jacob Leisler seizes control F Maintains position through 1690 F March Governor Henry Sloughter arrests, executes Leisler

32 The Glorious Revolution in Maryland F news prompts John Coode to lead revolt against Catholic governor F Coode's rebellion approved by King William F Maryland taken from Calvert control F proprietorship restored to the Protestant fourth Lord Baltimore


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