Presentation on theme: "17th Century ( 1625 – 1700) The Cavaliers & Puritans."— Presentation transcript:
17th Century ( 1625 – 1700) The Cavaliers & Puritans
Turmoil Religious & Political Queen Elizabeth dies 1603 King James King Charles Oliver Cromwell King Charles II “GLORIOUS REVOLUTION”
The Controversy Royal family are Anglican (Catholic sympathizers)WHILE Common people are Protestant sympathizers
Divine Right of Kings King is Head of Church & State
King James Not a picture of health… -- crippling arthritis -- weak limbs -- colic (digestion problems) -- gout -- difficulty walking -- tongue problems After numerous attempts on his life, he required constant care. Invented British flag -- combined England's red cross of St. George with Scotland's white cross of St. Andrew.
Religious Non-Conformity Puritans/Separatists Congregationists/Presbyterians Church government styles congregation vs. bishop liturgical vs. non-liturgical
King James & the Non-conformists “I shall make them conform themselves or I will harry them out of the land, or else…do worse.”
Angers Parliament u Angers Puritans u Private arrests, trials u Catholicize worship (High Church) u Last straw - Presbyterian Scots & the new liturgy! King Charles
CIVIL WAR u Roundheads = Puritans u Cavaliers = Royal Loyalists u Council of State - backed by revolutionary officers u Cromwell assumes control as “Lord Protector of the Commonwealth” The Bloody Revolution! King Charles beheaded in 1649!
Cromwell’s Rule Puritan strictness Military power Suppression of theatre & other frivolous activities Tyrant/dictator
The Restoration Cromwell’s death dooms Puritan rule u Parliament asks King Charles II back from exile in Holland u People revolted vs. Puritan strictness
Hatred of Cromwell
Charles II u Catholic sympathizer u Repressive religious measures u Allied to Catholic France u Discontent grows vs. monarchy
James II Catholic sympathizer u appoints Catholics to influential govt & military posts u Vatican reps in court u religious persecution of Scottish Protestants
Glorious Revolution (Bloodless Revolution) William of Orange (Protestant) u Mary (James II’s daughter) u Parliament asks them to rule in place of James II u New limited monarchy
London grows to 600,000!
Historic Events Great Plague in London ,000 die!
Historic Events Great Fire of London (Christopher Wren - rebuilder)
Cavalier Poets -- Lovelace, Suckling, Herrick -- u Anglican u supporters of the King u topics of wine, women, war & love u simple & easy to understand u avoided religious topics u witty & satirical “Tribe of Ben”
Metaphysical Poets -- Donne, Herbert, later Herrick -- u Protestant u Not happy with the King u religious & philosophical topics u challenging, demanding, symbolic u metaphysical conceits – unusual metaphors
u John Milton u Paradise Lost (over 10,000 lines) u Puritan look at fall into sin u “justify the ways of God to man” u great English classic 17th Century Poetry
u John Dryden u Poet laureate of Charles II u Neoclassic style (odes & satires) u literary criticism u essayist - “father of modern prose” u translator u debater
17th Century Drama He was not of an age, but for all time. -- To the Memory of Shakespeare u Ben Jonson u Comedies - Satiric Comedy - Tragicomedy - Comedy of Manners u Puritans close theater u Actresses acceptable by end of century
17th Century Prose u Scientific writing u Hobbes & Locke – Philosophical writing u Izaak Walton – The Compleat Angler u John Dryden – Literary criticism u Samuel Pepys – The Diary (in code) u John Bunyan – The Pilgrim’s Progress u King James Bible
John Bunyan Our Father which in heaven art, Thy name be always hallowed; Thy kingdom come, thy will be done; Thy heavenly path be followed By us on earth as 'tis with thee, We humbly pray; And let our bread us given be, From day to day. Forgive our debts as we forgive Those that to us indebted are: Into temptation lead us not, But save us from the wicked snare. The kingdom's thine, the power too, We thee adore; The glory also shall be thine For evermore.
Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress u Written in prison u Main character is Christian u Allegory of Christian Life u “Last great Christian classic”
Samuel Pepys – Diary Writer June 15th The Duke of Yorke not yet come to town. The town grows very sickly, and people to be afeared of it - there dying this last wek of the plague 112, from 43 the week before - whereof, one in Fanchurch-street and one in Broadstreete by the Treasurer's office.
Watch for... u Spelling becoming set (1st dictionaries) u Satire - moral writing to expose evil u Heroic couplet in poetry u Rise of comedies u Shakespeare considered “rough, uncultured” - not often performed