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17th Century ( 1625 – 1700) The Cavaliers & Puritans.

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Presentation on theme: "17th Century ( 1625 – 1700) The Cavaliers & Puritans."— Presentation transcript:

1 17th Century ( 1625 – 1700) The Cavaliers & Puritans

2 Turmoil Religious & Political Queen Elizabeth dies 1603 King James King Charles Oliver Cromwell King Charles II “GLORIOUS REVOLUTION”

3 The Controversy Royal family are Anglican (Catholic sympathizers)WHILE Common people are Protestant sympathizers

4 Divine Right of Kings King is Head of Church & State

5 King James Not a picture of health… -- crippling arthritis -- weak limbs -- colic (digestion problems) -- gout -- difficulty walking -- tongue problems After numerous attempts on his life, he required constant care. Invented British flag -- combined England's red cross of St. George with Scotland's white cross of St. Andrew.

6 Religious Non-Conformity Puritans/Separatists Congregationists/Presbyterians Church government styles congregation vs. bishop liturgical vs. non-liturgical

7 King James & the Non-conformists “I shall make them conform themselves or I will harry them out of the land, or else…do worse.”

8  Angers Parliament u Angers Puritans u Private arrests, trials u Catholicize worship (High Church) u Last straw - Presbyterian Scots & the new liturgy! King Charles

9 CIVIL WAR u Roundheads = Puritans u Cavaliers = Royal Loyalists u Council of State - backed by revolutionary officers u Cromwell assumes control as “Lord Protector of the Commonwealth” The Bloody Revolution! King Charles beheaded in 1649!

10 Cromwell’s Rule Puritan strictness Military power Suppression of theatre & other frivolous activities Tyrant/dictator

11 The Restoration  Cromwell’s death dooms Puritan rule u Parliament asks King Charles II back from exile in Holland u People revolted vs. Puritan strictness

12 Hatred of Cromwell

13 Charles II u Catholic sympathizer u Repressive religious measures u Allied to Catholic France u Discontent grows vs. monarchy

14 James II  Catholic sympathizer u appoints Catholics to influential govt & military posts u Vatican reps in court u religious persecution of Scottish Protestants

15 Glorious Revolution (Bloodless Revolution)  William of Orange (Protestant) u Mary (James II’s daughter) u Parliament asks them to rule in place of James II u New limited monarchy

16 London grows to 600,000!

17 Historic Events Great Plague in London ,000 die!

18 Historic Events Great Fire of London (Christopher Wren - rebuilder)

19 Cavalier Poets -- Lovelace, Suckling, Herrick -- u Anglican u supporters of the King u topics of wine, women, war & love u simple & easy to understand u avoided religious topics u witty & satirical “Tribe of Ben”

20 Metaphysical Poets -- Donne, Herbert, later Herrick -- u Protestant u Not happy with the King u religious & philosophical topics u challenging, demanding, symbolic u metaphysical conceits – unusual metaphors

21 u John Milton u Paradise Lost (over 10,000 lines) u Puritan look at fall into sin u “justify the ways of God to man” u great English classic 17th Century Poetry

22 u John Dryden u Poet laureate of Charles II u Neoclassic style (odes & satires) u literary criticism u essayist - “father of modern prose” u translator u debater

23 17th Century Drama He was not of an age, but for all time. -- To the Memory of Shakespeare u Ben Jonson u Comedies - Satiric Comedy - Tragicomedy - Comedy of Manners u Puritans close theater u Actresses acceptable by end of century

24 17th Century Prose u Scientific writing u Hobbes & Locke – Philosophical writing u Izaak Walton – The Compleat Angler u John Dryden – Literary criticism u Samuel Pepys – The Diary (in code) u John Bunyan – The Pilgrim’s Progress u King James Bible

25 John Bunyan Our Father which in heaven art, Thy name be always hallowed; Thy kingdom come, thy will be done; Thy heavenly path be followed By us on earth as 'tis with thee, We humbly pray; And let our bread us given be, From day to day. Forgive our debts as we forgive Those that to us indebted are: Into temptation lead us not, But save us from the wicked snare. The kingdom's thine, the power too, We thee adore; The glory also shall be thine For evermore.

26 Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress u Written in prison u Main character is Christian u Allegory of Christian Life u “Last great Christian classic”

27 Samuel Pepys – Diary Writer June 15th The Duke of Yorke not yet come to town. The town grows very sickly, and people to be afeared of it - there dying this last wek of the plague 112, from 43 the week before - whereof, one in Fanchurch-street and one in Broadstreete by the Treasurer's office.

28 Watch for... u Spelling becoming set (1st dictionaries) u Satire - moral writing to expose evil u Heroic couplet in poetry u Rise of comedies u Shakespeare considered “rough, uncultured” - not often performed


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