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The Cavaliers & Puritans

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Presentation on theme: "The Cavaliers & Puritans"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cavaliers & Puritans
17th Century (1625 – 1700)

2 Turmoil Religious & Political
Queen Elizabeth dies 1603 King James King Charles Oliver Cromwell King Charles II “GLORIOUS REVOLUTION”

3 The Controversy Royal family are Anglican (Catholic sympathizers)
WHILE Common people are Protestant sympathizers

4 King is Head of Church & State
Divine Right of Kings King is Head of Church & State

5 King James Not a picture of health…
-- crippling arthritis -- weak limbs -- colic (digestion problems) -- gout -- difficulty walking -- tongue problems After numerous attempts on his life, he required constant care. Invented British flag -- combined England's red cross of St. George with Scotland's white cross of St. Andrew.

6 Religious Non-Conformity
Puritans/Separatists Congregationists/Presbyterians Church government styles congregation vs. bishop liturgical vs. non-liturgical

7 King James & the Non-conformists
“I shall make them conform themselves or I will harry them out of the land, or else…do worse.”

8 King Charles Angers Parliament Angers Puritans Private arrests, trials
Catholicize worship (High Church) Last straw - Presbyterian Scots & the new liturgy!

9 CIVIL WAR The Bloody Revolution! King Charles beheaded in 1649!
Roundheads = Puritans Cavaliers = Royal Loyalists Council of State - backed by revolutionary officers Cromwell assumes control as “Lord Protector of the Commonwealth” The Bloody Revolution! King Charles beheaded in 1649!

10 Cromwell’s Rule Puritan strictness Military power
Suppression of theatre & other frivolous activities Tyrant/dictator

11 The Restoration Cromwell’s death dooms Puritan rule
Parliament asks King Charles II back from exile in Holland People revolted vs. Puritan strictness

12 Hatred of Cromwell

13 Charles II Catholic sympathizer Repressive religious measures
Allied to Catholic France Discontent grows vs. monarchy

14 James II Catholic sympathizer
appoints Catholics to influential govt & military posts Vatican reps in court religious persecution of Scottish Protestants

15 Glorious Revolution (Bloodless Revolution)
William of Orange (Protestant) Mary (James II’s daughter) Parliament asks them to rule in place of James II New limited monarchy

16 London grows to 600,000!

17 Great Plague in London 1665 ------------- 68,000 die!
Historic Events Great Plague in London 1665 68,000 die!

18 Great Fire of London - 1666 (Christopher Wren - rebuilder)
Historic Events Great Fire of London (Christopher Wren - rebuilder)

19 Cavalier Poets -- Lovelace, Suckling, Herrick --
Anglican supporters of the King topics of wine, women, war & love simple & easy to understand avoided religious topics witty & satirical “Tribe of Ben”

20 Metaphysical Poets -- Donne, Herbert, later Herrick --
Protestant Not happy with the King religious & philosophical topics challenging, demanding, symbolic metaphysical conceits – unusual metaphors

21 17th Century Poetry John Milton Paradise Lost (over 10,000 lines)
Puritan look at fall into sin “justify the ways of God to man” great English classic

22 17th Century Poetry John Dryden Poet laureate of Charles II
Neoclassic style (odes & satires) literary criticism essayist - “father of modern prose” translator debater

23 17th Century Drama Ben Jonson Comedies Puritans close theater
- Satiric Comedy - Tragicomedy - Comedy of Manners Puritans close theater Actresses acceptable by end of century He was not of an age, but for all time To the Memory of Shakespeare

24 17th Century Prose Scientific writing
Hobbes & Locke – Philosophical writing Izaak Walton – The Compleat Angler John Dryden – Literary criticism Samuel Pepys – The Diary (in code) John Bunyan – The Pilgrim’s Progress King James Bible

25 John Bunyan Our Father which in heaven art, Thy name be always hallowed; Thy kingdom come, thy will be done; Thy heavenly path be followed By us on earth as 'tis with thee, We humbly pray; And let our bread us given be, From day to day. Forgive our debts as we forgive Those that to us indebted are: Into temptation lead us not, But save us from the wicked snare. The kingdom's thine, the power too, We thee adore; The glory also shall be thine For evermore.

26 Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress
Written in prison Main character is Christian Allegory of Christian Life “Last great Christian classic”

27 Samuel Pepys – Diary Writer
June 15th The Duke of Yorke not yet come to town. The town grows very sickly, and people to be afeared of it - there dying this last wek of the plague 112, from 43 the week before - whereof, one in Fanchurch-street and one in Broadstreete by the Treasurer's office.

28 Watch for . . . Heroic couplet in poetry Rise of comedies
Spelling becoming set (1st dictionaries) Satire - moral writing to expose evil Heroic couplet in poetry Rise of comedies Shakespeare considered “rough, uncultured” - not often performed

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