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Rise of Nationalism 1848 1900 Adair Doran AP European History.

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Presentation on theme: "Rise of Nationalism 1848 1900 Adair Doran AP European History."— Presentation transcript:


2 Rise of Nationalism Adair Doran AP European History


4 Critical to formation of centralized states of Italy and Germany  Several causes  1853  1854  Most of fighting took place in Crimea

5 Crimean War

6  Noted for incompetence  1/2 million casualties  Florence Nightingale  Sevastopol  Austria  Real costs

7 Alfred Lord Tennyson’s

8 Charge of the Light Brigade  1 Half a league, half a league,  2 Half a league onward,  3 All in the valley of Death  4 Rode the six hundred.  5 `Forward, the Light Brigade!  6 Charge for the guns!' he said:  7 Into the valley of Death  8 Rode the six hundred.

9  `Forward, the Light Brigade!'  10 Was there a man dismay'd?  11 Not tho' the soldier knew  12 Some one had blunder'd:  13 Their's not to make reply,  14 Their's not to reason why,  15 Their's but to do and die:  16 Into the valley of Death  17 Rode the six hundred.

10  Cannon to right of them,  19 Cannon to left of them,  20 Cannon in front of them  21 Volley'd and thunder'd;  22 Storm'd at with shot and shell,  23 Boldly they rode and well,  24 Into the jaws of Death,  25 Into the mouth of Hell  26 Rode the six hundred.

11  27 Flash'd all their sabres bare,  28 Flash'd as they turn'd in air  29 Sabring the gunners there,  30 Charging an army, while  31 All the world wonder'd:  32 Plunged in the battery-smoke  33 Right thro' the line they broke;

12  34 Cossack and Russian  35 Reel'd from the sabre-stroke  36 Shatter'd and sunder'd.  37 Then they rode back, but not  38 Not the six hundred.

13  Cannon to left of them,  41 Cannon behind them  42 Volley'd and thunder'd;  43 Storm'd at with shot and shell,  44 While horse and hero fell,  45 They that had fought so well

14  46 Came thro' the jaws of Death,  47 Back from the mouth of Hell,  48 All that was left of them,  49 Left of six hundred.

15  When can their glory fade?  51 O the wild charge they made!  52 All the world wonder'd.  53 Honour the charge they made!  54 Honour the Light Brigade,  55 Noble six hundred!

16 FRANCE - LOUIS NAPOLEON  Louis Napoleon ( ) elected President of the Republic in Dec 1848elected President of the Republic in Dec 1848 WHY? WHY? –Reaction to June Days –Napoleonic Legend –Marx’s Theory –Offered something - what?

17 LOUIS NAPOLEON said,  “I represent … a principle, a cause, a defeat. The principle is the sovereignty of the people; the cause is that of Empire; the defeat is Waterloo.”

18 The Second Republic  President had strong powers  subjugation of the legislature only official gov’t candidates on ballotonly official gov’t candidates on ballot No legis control over budget,military, or foreign affairsNo legis control over budget,military, or foreign affairs *Did not allow for 2nd term*

19 Louis Napoleon - coup d’etat December 1851  Dissolved assembly  Mass arrest of opponents  brutal supression of workers’ revolt  Plebiscite - virtual unanimous support

20 Emperor Napoleon III,  Supported material progress railroad construction (5X)railroad construction (5X) Building of Suez CanalBuilding of Suez Canal Renovation of ParisRenovation of Paris –Baron Haussman production doublesproduction doubles

21 Emperor Napoleon  Support for Working class legality of strikes in 1864legality of strikes in 1864  France enjoyed prosperity, order, discipline for 18 years secret policesecret police press censored - no bad news printedpress censored - no bad news printed

22 Napoleon III man of peace  Continually involved in foreign affairs  allied with England in Crimean War  Supported Italy’s unification efforts  took over Tahiti  explored Senegal River in West Africa  tried to put Maximillian, a Hapsburg, on Mexican throne  gambled and lost war with Prussia in 1870

23 Italy  RISORGIMENTO  Catalysts for unification 3 men3 men

24 Guiseppe Mazzini  visionary of unification movement  founder of underground group - La Giovine Italy (Young Italy)  author or numerous tracts supporting Risorgimento

25 Camillo de Cavour ( )  Statesman of unification movement  developed model state in Sardinia-Piedmont to court other Italian states solid economic basesolid economic base state over churchstate over church  Created parliamentary democracy headed by monarch

26 Cavour-premier of Victor Emanuelle  Used  Used war to achieve aims  Crimean  Crimean War ( ) supportedsupported Britain, France, and Ottoman Turks purposepurpose to include discussion of Italian question at peace conferene

27 Cavour (Piedmont Sardinia)  Provoked Austrian declaration of war against Piedmont- Sardinia, 1859  Aided by France  Nap III made separate peace  inspired popular rebellions

28 Guiseppe Garibaldi  Warrior of the Unification movement  met with Cavour in Naples  conquered southern Italy “Red Shirts”“Red Shirts”  unified Kingdom of Naples with northern Italy  wanted to march on Rome

29 Guiseppe Garibaldi

30 Victor Emane ulle- first king of a united Italy, 1861

31 Italian Unification  Territorial additions to new kingdom of Italy Venetia, 1866 from Italian alliance with Prussia in war against AustriaVenetia, 1866 from Italian alliance with Prussia in war against Austria Papal states, 1870 after withdrawal of French troops from RomePapal states, 1870 after withdrawal of French troops from Rome

32 Italian Unification  Only small number of Italians could vote  Propertied classes and common people divided  wide social and cultural gap between northern and southern Italy

33 GERMANY-Austria-Hungary  Victory over Hungarian revolt, temporary  consolidated position w/ stern repression  centralized gov’t in Vienna  tried to “Germanize” subject nationalities

34 Germany (Austria-Hungary)  Germanization attempt stimulated nationalism instead  underground radical groups formed

35  Reichsrath  Reichsrath (Parliament) estab indirectindirect elections by local diets limitedlimited power only over new taxes  Real  Real power in hands of emperor  create  create new military police force

36 PROBLEMS in AUSTRIA  Socialists  power of the Church  discontent of nationalities  weakness of the army soldiers poor and illiteratesoldiers poor and illiterate long periods of service requiredlong periods of service required ineffective recruiting and officer trainingineffective recruiting and officer training

37  New imperial constitution elected representatives from local diets to imperial dietelected representatives from local diets to imperial diet Hungarians unhappy, demand concessionsHungarians unhappy, demand concessions

38 A-H CCCCompromise of Dual Monarchy (Augsleich -compromise) AAAAustria-Bohemia and Hungary hhhhave separate constitutions, parliaments, flag, and language ccccommon ministries of finance, foreign affairs, and war

39 A-H  Augsliech  Hapsburgs - Emperors in Austria-Bohemia, king in Hungary  Results Magyars more contentMagyars more content other minorities at mercy of Magyars and Germansother minorities at mercy of Magyars and Germans

40 Germany - Prussia KKKKing Frederick William IV ( ) iiiissued own constitution in 1850 had a parliament real power held by king and upper classes

41 Prussia FFFFred-Wm tried to sponsor a confederation of north German states alienated Austria and Russia forced to drop plans called the “Humiliation at Olmutz”

42 Prussia  Kept Austria out of zollverien  strengthened control over domestic policies suppressed liberalssuppressed liberals control of state functions in hands of noblescontrol of state functions in hands of nobles provided public education to more citizens than any other European stateprovided public education to more citizens than any other European state

43 William I, king of Prussia  Becomes regent in 1858  rules  more moderate than father  crisis in 1862 king wanted to strengthen armyking wanted to strengthen army Diet wouldn’t approve new taxesDiet wouldn’t approve new taxes –liberals opposed

44  Called  Called Otto von Bismarck home PrussianPrussian ambassador to France  Became  Became prime minister advisedadvised king to defy Diet collectedcollected taxes without approval “Blood“Blood and Iron”

45 Otto von Bismarck

46 OTTO von BISMARCK EEEEntered diplomatic service after 1848 sssserved William I pppprincipal advisor and minister to king by 1860 aaaadvocated a Prussian- based Germany 1111850s - helped pass military reforms to improve army

47 BISMARCK  helped Russia suppress Polish rebellion  this improved Russian- Prussian relations

48  REALPOLITIK realism in politics, ignores theories, idealismrealism in politics, ignores theories, idealism practical application of power to achieve state goalspractical application of power to achieve state goals do not consider moral ramificationsdo not consider moral ramifications

49 Schleswig-Holstein Crisis  Occupied by Germans  controlled by king of Denmark  new constitution would annex area by Denmark, Germans rebel  Austria and Prussia help, Denmark defeated

50 Shleswig-Holstein  Areas to be jointly administered by Prussia and Austria led to strained relationsled to strained relations Prussia admin SchleswigPrussia admin Schleswig Austria admin HolsteinAustria admin Holstein Bismark prepares for conflict Bismark prepares for conflict –IT, FR, RUS won’t interfere

51 7 Week’s War ( German Civil War) Austro - Prussian War AAAAustria devastated at Koniggratz by von Moltke PPPPeace of Prague, Aug 1866 Austria not part of any new Ger state Venetia goes to Italy Austria pays Prussia indemnity

52 Germany - (Prussia)  North  North German Confederation formed  King  King of Prussia, President of Confederation  Had  Had a bicameral legislature  did  did not include - Baden, Saxony, Bavaria, Wurttemburg

53 Franco-Prussian War  Bismarck provokes to unify all Ger  Deteriorating relations between Fr and Prussia  Ems Dispatch, 1870 innocent issue turned into diplomatic crisis - propaganda campaigninnocent issue turned into diplomatic crisis - propaganda campaign France declares warFrance declares war

54 Franco-Prussian War  Decisive victories for Prussia  Napoleon and leading generals captured  Paris continued to resist til Jan 1871  Treaty of Frankfurt, May 1871 France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to GerFrance ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Ger Ger occupied Fr until indemnity paidGer occupied Fr until indemnity paid

55 Jan 18, 1871  German Empire declared  William I becomes Emperor  Bismarck - Imperial Chancellor  rest of Germany incorporated into new Germany - Saxony, Wurttemburg, Bavaria, Baden

56 GERMAN EMPIRE  Prussia dominates  Capital at Berlin  National army under Kaiser  Bicameral Legislature

57 Germany after unification under Bismarck’s leadership AAAAdvantages - abundant natural resources, educational system, industrialization,strong army, good infrastructure -roads, railroads, telegraph lines

58 Kulturkampf Program  Created out of fear of Catholic’s loyalty to Rome Jesuits expelledJesuits expelled Catholic Bishops arrested or expelledCatholic Bishops arrested or expelled  Failed, made peace with Church in 1878

59 Fear of Socialist appeal PPPPassage of anti-Socialist laws prohibition of meetings censorship of newspapers IIIIntroduction of govt-sponsored socialist programs national sickness and and accident insurance old age pensions and retirement benefits

60 The Responsive National State - elsewhere in Europe  In  In Europe after 1500, more powerful states absorbed weaker ones. The numbers went from by In the 1/2 century before WWI there were six major countries competing in the European arena.

61 Similarities of these countries IIIIndustrialization material strength economic power technology cccconscript armies UUUUniversal educational systems

62  Efficient communications networks  efficient tax collection  citizens given larger voice in gov’t  competed for power outside own borders

63 England CCCChartist Movement, s six demands all met by end of century except annual elections

64 Lord Palmerston  Dominated foreign affairs from 1830 to 1865  Prime Minister from 1855 to 1865  Combined rule of aristocracy with the middle class  Symbolized conservative phase

65 Palmerston  Not interested in domestic issues  India s East India Co mutiny in 1857, govt took overmutiny in 1857, govt took over  China - forced to open up trade  US Civil War - supported Union

66 England to 1914  State support for industry & trade  more closely involved in welfare of citizens  led by Gladstone ( ) Liberal (Whig) and Disraeli ( ) Conservative (Tory)  alternated as Prime Ministers from

67 Gladstone  Son of rich Liverpool merchant - wealthy, good social position  entered Parl in great orator  started as Conservative reformer, became Liberal party member

68 Gladstone  favored laissez-faire  Irish Home Rule  opposed involvement in Europe  opposed imperialism

69 Disraeli ( )  Son of naturalized Jew, baptized Anglican  swings from liberal to conservative, becomes leader of Conservative Party  favored aggressive foreign policy  favored expansion of British Empire

70 England  Landed gentry and middle class allied to keep lower classes “in their stations”  serious problems avoided, but reforms are needed

71 England  1866 Gladstone introduces reforms, failed, were riots  1867 Conservatives elected  Disraeli sponsors Reform Bill of 1867

72 Reform Bill of 1867  Redistributed seats  more than a million workers given the right to vote(men over 21 in cities)  increased electorate by 88% - no women or farm laborers

73  Gladstone re-elected (Liberal)  Glorious Ministry carried out many reforms

74 GLORIOUS MINISTRY Education Act, 1870Education Act, 1870 Civil Service Reform, 1870Civil Service Reform, 1870 Justice system made more efficientJustice system made more efficient Land Act of 1870Land Act of 1870 University Act of 1870University Act of 1870

75 Disraeli elected,  Wanted to give country a “rest” from reforms  Tory democracy  Alliance of landed gentry and workers against middle class  number of reforms

76 reforms  Public Health Act  Artisan’s Dwelling Act  Food and Drug Legislation  Union rights extended

77 Gladstone returns  Third Reform Bill, 1884  Employer’s Liability Act  Irish Problem - Home Rule

78  Conservatives dominate  little change  Labour Party founded by J. Ramsey MacDonald  Liberal Party decides it must reform

79 Liberal Party  Led by David Lloyd George, Henry Asquith, Winston Churchill  “four spectres haunt the poor: Old Age, Accident, Sickness, and Unemployment. We are going to exorcise them.”

80 Reforms  Old Age Pensions  National employment bureaus  workman’s compensation protection  sickness, accident, and unemployment insurance

81 Reforms  Labor unions relieved of responsibility of losses caused by strikes  moderate salary paid to members of the House of Commons

82 Reforms  House of Lords tried to oppose failed to pass budget of failed to pass budget of had new taxes on rich to pay for programshad new taxes on rich to pay for programs  Liberal and Labour parties attacked the House of Lords as anachronism  Parl Bill of 1911 took away House of Lords power of absolute veto

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