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Hist 110 American Civilization I Instructor: Dr. Donald R. Shaffer Upper Iowa University.

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Presentation on theme: "Hist 110 American Civilization I Instructor: Dr. Donald R. Shaffer Upper Iowa University."— Presentation transcript:


2 Hist 110 American Civilization I Instructor: Dr. Donald R. Shaffer Upper Iowa University

3 Lecture 3 Restoration Colonies Proprietary colonies Colonies given by King to private parties to rule essentially as their own property Maryland: established as the first such colony by Charles I Charles II rewarded supporters and family with proprietorships He owed significant debts from his time in exile after the English Civil War Carolina (1663): given the a group of supporters who failed in their attempt to create a quasi-feudal society there New Netherlands became New York (1665) under proprietorship of Charles II’s younger brother, James, the Duke of York Pennsylvania (1681) Given as a proprietorship to William Penn as payment for a debt that Charles II owed to Penn’s father Colony became a prosperous refuge for Quakers, and many other groups, including Germans and Native Americans

4 Lecture 3 England Tightens its Grip Mercantilism Prevailing economic doctrine of the 17 th and 18 th century Believed countries must tightly control international trade to benefit from it Navigation Acts A series of trade regulations imposed starting in 1651 aimed at forcing English colonies to trade exclusively with England and its colonies These laws often ignored by American colonists Political Centralization Massachusetts Charter revoked in 1684 Dominion of New England: James II consolidateds New England colonies and New York into authoritarian government under Edmund Andros (with no representative legislature) Charles IIJames II Edmund Andros

5 Lecture 3 Glorious Revolution James II’s alienated England’s political elite as well as the American colonists He openly embraced Catholicism The birth of his son and prospect of a Catholic dynasty caused Parliament to force James II into exile and to invite his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William, to become co-monarchs Glorious Revolution in America News of James II’s overthrow sparked rebellions by Protestants in Massachusetts, Maryland, and New York Massachusetts: Andros overthrown, Dominion of New England dissolved, but old Massachusetts charter not restored Maryland: Protestants temporarily succeeded in overthrowing the Calvert proprietorship (restored in 1715) Jacob Leisler led a rebellion in New York, at first winning support, but alienated some supporters and was eventually arrested and hanged for treason William and Mary Jacob Leisler

6 England and her allies, starting in 1689, began to fight a series of imperial wars against France and her allies, that would last until 1815 These wars were fought over dominance not only in North Americas, but also Europe, the Caribbean, West Africa, India and elsewhere Imperial Wars affecting British North America King William’s War (1689-1697): parallels War of the Grand Alliance in Europe Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713): parallels War of the Spanish Succession in Europe King George’s War (1744-1748): parallels War of the Austrian Succession in Europe Also connected to the War of Jenkin’s Ear between Britain and Spain French and Indian War (1754-1763): parallels the Seven Years’ War in Europe Lecture 3 Imperial Wars Fortress of Louisbourg Nova Scotia A major strategic point in the Imperial Wars

7 Lecture 3 Atlantic World Economy British North America part of a larger economic system consisting of legal trade amongst Britain and her colonies in the Atlantic basin The colonies also had substantial illegal trade outside the British system Triangular Trade Textiles, rum, and manufactured goods sent to Africa in return for slaves Slaves sent to the Americas from Africa Sugar, tobacco, rice and other commodities sent from the Americas to Europe Slavery in the Atlantic World Economy The slave trade played a key role in this Atlantic economic system Slaves needed to grow plantation crops, sugar in particular, the demand for which in the Atlantic basin was key to driving the entire system Map depicting the flow of goods in the Atlantic world economy

8 Lecture 3 Africa and Atlantic Slave Trade Europeans tapped into already existing markets for slaves in Africa that were controlled by Africans Europeans, with permission of local leaders established forts on the coast to wait for African slave traders to bring captives for sale Slaves were sold to European traders for rum, gold, and manufactured goods They had typically already spent weeks or even months in a forced march from the interior, where had been enslaved, to the coast They could spend a day or less, or sometimes a year or more in chains at the slave fort on the coast waiting for transportation across the Atlantic The slaves generally were tightly packed below decks on the slave ships, during the “Middle Passage” of the Triangular Trade The journey typically last 4-8 weeks, and 1 out of 7 slaves died en route

9 Lecture 3 Development of Slavery in British North America Chesapeake Africans first arrived in Virginia in 1619 For several decades they were not treated very differently than white indentured servants, with some becoming planters Read about Anthony Johnson The status of Africans deteriorated, especially after 1650 After Bacon’s Rebellion African slaves-for- life replaced indentured servants as tobacco laborers South Carolina Slavery arrived intact with immigrants from Barbados Slaves growing rice for food introduced the crop that would make slavery there profitable So many slaves were imported into the colony that by 1705 they were a majority of the population

10 Lecture 3 Slaves in Colonial North America Slaves created a distinct culture Their culture was a combination of European and African elements Slaves in South Carolina retained a higher degree of African culture because of the black majority and relative isolation from whites Read about the Gullah language Resistance Feign illness, work slowdowns, theft, sabotage, running away, etc. Read about the Stono Rebellion (1731) Read about the Stono Rebellion Many slaves adopted Christianity but imparted to it the enthusiastic character of African religiosity Families served a key role in African- American culture as a source of consolation, support, and training in how to cope with slavery Slaves managed to leave an imprint on American culture in such fields as religion and architecture Slaves dancing in Colonial Virginia

11 Lecture 3 Rise of the Southern Gentry A white culture developed in the South alongside the slave culture In exploring this culture as it developed among southern slaveholders, the textbook focuses on William Byrd II Learn more about William Byrd II Byrd’s lavish lifestyle epitomizes the quest for comfort and luxury of Chesapeake elite in contrast to primitive money- grubbing planters of the early decades He and other members of the American gentry imitated the lifestyle of the contemporary aristocracy in England They treated their slaves in an authoritarian fashion, but were forced to pay a degree of respect to lesser whites who often could vote Sample of William Byrd II’s secret diary William Byrd II

12 Lecture 3 Northern Maritime Economy The northern maritime economy was deeply tied into the slave economy of the British Empire Farmers of the Middle Colonies supplied the sugar plantations of the Caribbean with foodstuffs and New England fisherman sent them salted cod Mainland distilleries turned Caribbean molasses into rum American colonists also sent their products elsewhere and colonial ports developed to ship out the exports and process the arrival of imports that came in from Atlantic basin and elsewhere Directing this trade were a group of prosperous merchants who monetized transactions with bills of trades Merchants operated in an urban environment with a community of artisans, shopkeepers, tradesmen, laborers, and assorted hangers on Port of Boston, 1770 Engraving by Paul Revere

13 Lecture 3 British-American Geo-Politics Rise of the Colonial Assemblies American colonial assemblies worked successfully after the Glorious Revolution to grab power away from royal governors and proprietors They did so by using the leverage of appropriating the salary of the governor and other royal officials in America Salutary Neglect Americans got away with the power grab because British from 1689 to 1763 largely did not care what went on in America British neglect of America proved salutary (i.e., beneficial) because the colonists proved competent in managing their own affairs Americans and the Navigation Acts The main point of irritation in American relationship with Britain was American evasion of the Navigation Acts

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