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Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Putting Down Roots: Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society 3

2 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands New England in the Seventeenth Century All colonies developed in different ways New England colonies settled by Puritans Puritans believed God ordained the family and viewed family as essential to colony Reproduced English customs and traditions mainly because of family structure Key to growth - Huge population growth caused by long life expectancy – good health - more than high fertility

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Commonwealth of Families Longevity resulted in invention of grandparents – multigenerational families strengthened social stability Most New Englanders married neighbors with similar values Households produced their own needs and surpluses – most farmers New England towns were collections of interrelated households

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Commonwealth of Families Church membership associated with concept of predestination - freeman status Form of Church Government - Join church in order to vote – twice as many woman in church as men but couldn’t vote Education provided by the family/Harvard “Half-Way Covenant” lessened requirements for baptism and for joining Church

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Social Hierarchy in New England New England social order: – Local gentry of prominent, pious families – Large population of independent yeomen landowners loyal to local community – land ownership is widespread – Small population of landless laborers, servants, poor – Moderate disparities of wealth – Apprenticeships

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Challenge of the Chesapeake Environment Despite similarities in background and timing with New England, Chesapeake settlements were very different Most important reason: high mortality rate

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Family Life at Risk Normal family life impossible in Virginia – much fewer families than New England – Mostly young male indentured servants – Most immigrants soon died – In marriages, one spouse often died within seven years Extended families common Mortality rates so high that without immigration, population would have declined

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Structure of Planter Society: The Gentry Tobacco the basis of Chesapeake wealth Large landowners had to have labor under their control Great planters few but dominant –Arrived with capital to invest in workers –Amassed huge tracts of land –Gentry intermarried and become colony’s elite leaders

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Structure of Planter Society The largest class in Chesapeake society were poor Most freed at the end of indenture period Lived on the edge of poverty Wide gap between rich and poor

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Structure of Planter Society: Indentured Servants Servitude a temporary status Conditions harsh Servants regarded their bondage as slavery Planters feared rebellion

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Structure of Planter Society: Post-1680s Stability Before 1680, the rank of gentry was open to people with capital Ownership of labor consolidated planter wealth and position Freemen found advancement more difficult – wide gap between rich and poor By 1680, Virginia was a plantation society, dominated by a slaveholding elite

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Structure of Planter Society: A Dispersed Population Large-scale tobacco cultivation required: – Great landholdings – Ready access to water-borne commerce Result: population dispersed along great tidal rivers Virginia a rural society devoid of towns Education system was seen as unnecessary and got little attention

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Race and Freedom in British America Indians decimated by disease European indentured servant pool waned after 1660 Enslaved Africans filled demand for labor

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Roots of Slavery First Africans came to Virginia in 1619 Status of Africans in Virginia unclear for fifty years Early 1600s Blacks came as indentured servants and some some became planters Bulk of slaves brought to America by British Company Economic decision after 1670s for slaves Life expectancy in Chesapeake improved British started to bring slaves to Chesapeake

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Roots of Slavery Rising black population in Virginia after 1672 prompted stricter slave laws –Africans defined as slaves for life –Slave status passed on to children –White masters possessed total control of slave life and labor –Mixing of races not tolerated

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Origins and Destinations of African Slaves, 1619–1760

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Constructing African American Identities: Geography’s Influence Slave experience differed from colony to colony 60% of South Carolina’s population black Nearly half of Virginia’s population black Blacks much less numerous in New England and the Middle Colonies Blacks most able to preserve African culture in South Carolina

18 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Constructing African American Identities: African Initiatives Older black population tended to look down on recent arrivals from Africa All Africans participated in creating an African American culture – Required an imaginative re-shaping of African and European customs. By 1720, African population and culture were self-sustaining

19 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Constructing African American Identities: Slave Resistance Widespread resentment among slaves Armed resistance such as South Carolina’s Stono Rebellion of 1739 a threat – most serious rebellion during colonial time Black mariners linked African American communities and brought news of outside world to American slaves

20 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Rise of a Commercial Empire English leaders ignored colonies until 1650s Restored monarchy of Charles II recognized value of colonial trade Navigation Acts passed to remove Dutch as a commercial competitor

21 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Response to Economic Competition “Mercantilism” –One country’s gain is another country’s loss –Countries gain by control of world’s scarce resources (gold and silver) –One country controls trade of another – favorable balance of trade (one nation’s success is another nation’s loss) English trade regulations more ad hoc responses to particular problems than coherent mercantilist policy

22 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Response to Economic Competition Varieties of motivation –Crown wanted money and to monopolize trade with colonies –English merchants wanted to exclude Dutch –Parliament wanted stronger navy— encouraged domestic shipbuilding industry –Most people preferred more exports, less imports (favorable balance of trade)

23 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1660 Ships engaged in English colonial trade – Must be made in England (or America) – Must carry a crew at least 75% English Enumerated goods only to English ports – 1660 list included tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyes, ginger – 1704–1705 molasses, rice, naval stores also

24 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1663 The Staple Act Goods shipped to English colonies must pass through England Increased price paid by colonial consumers

25 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Regulating Colonial Trade: Implementing the Acts Navigation Acts aimed at removing Dutch role in English commerce Planters hurt by Navigation Acts New England merchants skirted laws – most flagrant violation from New England English revisions tightened loopholes

26 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Regulating Colonial Trade: Implementing the Acts 1696—Admiralty Courts and Board of Trade created Navigation Acts eventually benefited colonial merchants

27 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Colonial Factions Spark Political Revolt, 1676–1691 English colonies experienced unrest at the end of the seventeenth century Unrest not social revolution but a contest between gentry “ins” and “outs” Winners gained legitimacy for their rule

28 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Civil War in Virginia: Bacon’s Rebellion—Beginnings Discontent with Governor Berkeley’s rule –Green Spring faction controlled lucrative economic activity –Frontier population felt that Berkeley did not protect them from Native Americans Nathaniel Bacon united this discontent into rebellion in 1676 Rebellion allowed small farmers, blacks and women to join, demand reforms

29 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Civil War in Virginia: Bacon’s Rebellion—Outcome Rebels burned capital, caused great disorder Governor William Berkeley regained control, but was recalled to England Rebellion collapsed after Bacon’s death Gentry recovered positions and united over next decades to oppose royal governors

30 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: King Philip’s War Population divided by increased trade –Brought non-Puritan settlers –Navigation Acts inflicted direct royal presence 1675—Metacomet led Wampanoag- Narragansett alliance against colonists

31 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: King Philip’s War Colonists struggled to unite and to defeat Indians Deaths totaled Indians and colonists

32 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: The Dominion of New England 1684—King James II established “Dominion of New England” – Colonial charters annulled – Colonies from Maine to New Jersey united – Edmund Andros appointed governor, ruled tyrannically 1689—news of James II’s overthrow sparked rebellion in Massachusetts

33 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: Outcomes Andros deposed when word of revolution in England reached New England Dominion of New England split up in 1691 William III and Mary II gave Massachusetts a new charter – Incorporated Plymouth – Voting rights based on property and wealth, not church membership

34 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Contagion of Witchcraft Charges of witchcraft common – Accused witches thought to have made a compact with the devil Salem panic of 1691 much larger in scope than previous accusations –Twenty victims dead before trials halted in late summer of 1692 – 19 victims hung

35 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Contagion of Witchcraft Ministers outside Salem condemned practice of using “Spectral Evidence” in trials Increase Mather and other leading ministers urged caution and restraint Speculation on causes but no one knows for sure what caused this – still a debate among historians

36 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in New York Underlying tension between older Dutch elite and newly wealthy Anglo-Dutch merchants 1689—news of James II’s overthrow prompted crisis of authority in New York Jacob Leisler seized control

37 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in New York Maintained position through 1690 March 1691—Governor Henry Sloughter arrested and executed Leisler

38 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in Maryland 1689—news prompted John Coode to lead revolt against Catholic governor Coode’s rebellion approved by King William Coode’s rebellion successful

39 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Glorious Revolution in Maryland Maryland as Royal colony –Maryland taken from Calvert control –Anglican official church; Catholics barred from office 1715—proprietorship restored to the Protestant fourth Lord Baltimore

40 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Local Aspirations within an Atlantic Empire By 1700, England’s attitude toward the colonies had changed dramatically Sectional differences within the colonies were profound They were all part of Great Britain but had little to do with each other


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