Presentation on theme: "English Revolution and Constitutional Monarch Chapter 20.1 and 20.2 Powdered Heads to Powdered Kegs."— Presentation transcript:
English Revolution and Constitutional Monarch Chapter 20.1 and 20.2 Powdered Heads to Powdered Kegs
What is the big picture? 1600s-1800s are time of REVOLUTIONS! All types of revolutions! For example the French overthrew their king and set up a republic The English replaced one king with another and greatly limited the power of the monarchy The British colonists in the Americas will revolt Agricultural Revolution Scientific Revolution Philosophical Revolution
Why Should You Care? Political democracy rests on the principal that gov’t derives (gets) its power from the consent (the “OK”) of the governed. The foundations of English civil rights are: 1. jury trial 2. the Magna Carta 3. common law The English Civil War prompted further development of the rights of the common Englishman
What You Should Ask Yourself (and be able to answer) How did the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution (2 different events) promote the development of the rights of Englishmen?
Let’s Begin With “King” Elizabeth
From there it seems to be all downhill... King Elizabeth Queen James I whoops, I meant King James I Charles I Wrote Psalms for the modern Bible: King James version
Charles I Divine Right of Kings means he doesn’t listen to Parliament They present him with the Petition of Right king can’t tax people w/out permission of Parliament he can’t declare martial law can’t quarter soldiers in private homes in times of peace can’t imprison someone w/out a specific charge he signed but ignored it - continued to tax as wanted - he dismissed Parliament because they kept complaining
Charles I He made people angry! 1.kept Parliament dissolved 2.Parliament mainly Puritan 3.made church services more formal (like the Catholic ceremonies) this angered Puritans 4.no guarantee of civil liberties 5.no juries and judges made decisions in secret - like the infamous Star Chamber 6.people didn’t like his absolute rule
Charles I National Covenant and Scottish Rebellion! Scottish as Presbyterian Protestants- they resent the forcing of Anglican ceremonies! They signed the National Covenant stating they would never do this...they were loyal to their church more than their (resented-hated) British king Charles I invades 2x and fails - he finally has to call in Parliament (and they aren’t leaving now!)
This new Parliament is called the Long Parliament King can’t dissolve Parliament Parliament must meet at least one time every 3 years tried to change Anglican Church but that wasn’t successful New Laws Meanwhile....bloody rebellion in British-controlled lands of Ireland Parliament said they needed an army - Charles refused - Civil War Began in 1642
English Civil War Cavaliers for the King Roundheads for Puritan Parliament
English Civil War Oliver Cromwell Under Oliver Cromwell (military genius) leads the Puritans ’ army against the king. Run Charles I out Parliament now the Rump Parliament England is a Commonwealth now Guess now would be a good time to leave town! I’ll go to Scotland psst...he didn’t make it - Cromwell had him beheaded!
English Civil War Oliver Cromwell Life is tough under Cromwell! Life was ugly! lots of battles lots of gossip His rule - the Protectorate - was unpopular!
English Civil War Oliver Cromwell This rule would have ended earlier except for : 1. raised enough $ from taxes and land sales to make sure the army was well trained and equipped. 2. Army was disciplined & powerful 3. Enemies were not organized
English Civil War Trade and the Dutch! I’m not letting the Dutch control all the trade and make all the money! Navigation Act of 1651 all goods coming to England from other countries need to be carried on English ships or by ships of the producing country. War with Dutch!
End of English Civil War Cromwell dismissed Parliament He ruled alone He died 1660 Parliament invited Charles II to come back and be king! This is the period of Restoration! (the restoring of the king...) The merry monarch...
Put It In Order 1.Civil War broke out 2.Parliament passed Petition of Rights 3.Cromwell had Charles I killed 4.Charles I refused to call Parliament to session 5.Cromwell “failed” to set up a constitution 6.Cromwell ruled as lord protector 7.Long Parliament began 8.Parliament invited Charles II to be King of England
The Glorious Revolution Next comes the Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution Why is the Glorious Revolution so glorious? because it brings a constitutional monarchy to the most powerful kingdom on Earth - Great Britain
The Glorious Revolution Let’s get some timing in order...
The Glorious Revolution The original Norman invaders of 1066 (Remember William the Conqueror - the Norman bastard?) The Magna Carta and its Rule of Law Elizabeth James I - then Charles I /1658 then Oliver Cromwell and English Civil War 1660 Charles II -then James II.(quasi catholic) 1688 Glorious Revolution with William and Mary It has all been about establishing the worth of the individual vs. the rulers. By the time of the Glorious Revolution it is pretty clear that the common man in England has rights not enjoyed anywhere else in the world.
The Glorious Revolution How it all begins /1658 then Oliver Cromwell and English Civil War 1660 Charles II -then James II.(quasi catholic)
Constitutional Monarchy The Kings Return Charles II Restoration Rebirth of English Culture
Constitutional Monarchy The Kings Return Avoided fights with Parliament Did fight with Dutch and won the American colony of New Amsterdam (renamed it New York) French and British rivalry restarts - this one lasts 150 years!
Constitutional Monarchy The Kings Return Wanted toleration of Catholicism Parliament hated that! He was forced to abandon any efforts to bring religious toleration
Charles II (Catholic) has no heir It looks like James II - his brother - an avowed Catholic might inherit! England is divided over this issue Not enough for another bloody civil war like the one with they just had with the Cavaliers and Roundheads This will be a peaceful revolution
Constitutional Monarchy outlaws believed James II (Roman Catholic) should rule believed in Anglican Church believed in monarchy - enough to accept a Roman Catholic ruler like James horse thief = rebellious OMG! James II is Catholic! need/want strong Parliament and believed they had the right to oppose James as ruler Tories Whigs
James II seems to be inheriting the throne Parliament divides over who should inherit throne Whigs v. Tories Parliament offers throne to Protestant Mary (daughter of James II) and husband William of Orange Glorious Revolution power passed without bloodshed English Bill of Rights signed
William (Duke of Orange) and Mary
Glorious Revolution Democracy T he English Bill of Rights was passed by Parliament after the Glorious Revolution of Power was transferred from Catholic James II to his son-in-law and daughter, William and Mary, both of whom were Protestant. The Bill of Rights ensured the supremacy of Parliament over the monarchy in England. England was still not a true democracy, but it was taking steps toward becoming one.
Changes in Gov’t
Toleration Act - Religious Freedoms (protect everyone but Roman Catholics and Jews) Act of Settlement Keeps Catholics from the throne - if William III dies with no heirs then throne goes to Mary’s Protestant sister Anne...and so on - always to Protestants
1700 England is a Constitutional Monarchy Parliament House of Lords House of Commons Prime MinisterCabinet
Act of Union - united Scotland and England Scotland didn’t like it encouraged trade
Review Peter the Great and Catherine the Great changed Russia by 1. abolishing all social class distinctions 2. becoming constitutional monarchs 3. preventing wars with neighboring nations 4. introducing western ideas and customs
review “ God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake, at his pleasure; to give life or send death; to judge…and to be judged (by) none…And the like power have kings;… ” Which idea is described by this passage? 1. theory of divine right 2. enlightened despotism 3. Social Darwinism 4. constitutional monarchy
Review “...The person of the King is sacred, and to attack him in any way is an attack on religion itself. Kings represent the divine majesty and have been appointed by Him to carry out His purposes. Serving God and respecting kings are bound together. ” —Bishop Jacques Bossuet This statement describes the philosophy that existed during the 1. existed during the 2. Age of Absolutism 3. Renaissance 4. Industrial Revolution