Presentation on theme: "English Revolution and Constitutional Monarch Chapter 20.1 and 20.2"— Presentation transcript:
1English Revolution and Constitutional Monarch Chapter 20.1 and 20.2 Powdered Heads to Powdered Kegs
2What is the big picture?1600s-1800s are time of REVOLUTIONS! All types of revolutions!For example the French overthrew their king and set up a republicThe English replaced one king with another and greatly limited the power of the monarchyThe British colonists in the Americas will revoltAgricultural RevolutionScientific RevolutionPhilosophical Revolution
3Why Should You Care?Political democracy rests on the principal that gov’t derives (gets) its power from the consent (the “OK”) of the governed.The foundations of English civil rights are:1. jury trial2. the Magna Carta3. common lawThe English Civil War prompted further development of the rights of the common Englishman
4What You Should Ask Yourself (and be able to answer) How did the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution (2 different events) promote the development of the rights of Englishmen?
6From there it seems to be all downhill... King ElizabethQueen James Iwhoops, I meant King James ICharles IWrote Psalms for the modern Bible: King James version
7Divine Right of Kings means he doesn’t listen to Parliament Charles IDivine Right of Kings means hedoesn’t listen to ParliamentThey present him with the Petition of Rightking can’t tax people w/out permission of Parliamenthe can’t declare martial lawcan’t quarter soldiers in private homes in times of peacecan’t imprison someone w/out a specific charge1. ANYWAY…. He dies and his son ________________ inherits the throne of England. Using and abusing the concept of ___________________ he angers Parliament. They present him with ______________________. It statesa.b.c.d.1. Even though Charles I signed this document he still ___________ the people and when members of the House of Commons (the lower house of Parliament) protested, Charles I just ______________ .he signed but ignored it - continued to tax as wanted - he dismissed Parliament because they kept complaining
8kept Parliament dissolved Parliament mainly Puritan Charles IHe made people angry!kept Parliament dissolvedParliament mainly Puritanmade church services more formal (like the Catholic ceremonies) this angered Puritansno guarantee of civil libertiesno juries and judges made decisions in secret - like the infamous Star Chamberpeople didn’t like his absolute rule1. List at least 2 actions Charles I took which angered people.a.b.1. What was wrong with the courts? How were they unfair?
9National Covenant and Scottish Rebellion! Charles INational Covenant and Scottish Rebellion!Scottish as Presbyterian Protestants- they resent the forcing of Anglican ceremonies!They signed the National Covenant stating they would never do this...they were loyal to their church more than their (resented-hated) British kingCharles I invades 2x and fails - he finally has to call in Parliament (and they aren’t leaving now!)1. What is the National Covenant and how do the Scottish feel about their religion?
10This new Parliament is called the Long Parliament New LawsKing can’t dissolve ParliamentParliament must meet at least one time every 3 yearstried to change Anglican Church but that wasn’t successfulMeanwhile....bloody rebellion in British-controlled lands of IrelandParliament said they needed an army - Charles refused - Civil War Began in 1642
11English Civil WarRoundheads forPuritan ParliamentCavaliers for the King
12psst...he didn’t make it - Cromwell had him beheaded! English Civil WarOliver CromwellUnder Oliver Cromwell (military genius) leads the Puritans’ army against the king.Run Charles I outParliament now the Rump ParliamentEngland is a Commonwealth nowGuess now would be a good time to leave town!I’ll go to Scotlandpsst...he didn’t make it - Cromwell had him beheaded!
13English Civil War Oliver Cromwell Life is tough under Cromwell! Life was ugly!lots of battleslots of gossipHis rule - the Protectorate - was unpopular!
14English Civil War Oliver Cromwell This rule would have ended earlier except for :1. raised enough $ from taxes and land sales to make sure the army was well trained and equipped.2. Army was disciplined & powerful3. Enemies were not organized
15English Civil War Navigation Act of 1651 Trade and the Dutch!I’m not letting the Dutch control all the trade and make all the money!Navigation Act of 1651all goods coming to England from other countries need to be carried on English ships or by ships of the producing country.War with Dutch!
16End of English Civil War Cromwell dismissed ParliamentHe ruled aloneHe died1660 Parliament invited Charles IIto come back and be king!This is the period of Restoration!(the restoring of the king...)The merry monarch...
17Parliament passed Petition of Rights Cromwell had Charles I killed Put It In OrderCivil War broke outParliament passed Petition of RightsCromwell had Charles I killedCharles I refused to call Parliament to sessionCromwell “failed” to set up a constitutionCromwell ruled as lord protectorLong Parliament beganParliament invited Charles II to be King of England
18The Glorious Revolution Next comes the Glorious Revolution
19The Glorious Revolution Why is the Glorious Revolution so glorious?because it brings a constitutional monarchy to the most powerful kingdom on Earth - Great Britain
20The Glorious Revolution Let’s get some timing in order...
21The Glorious Revolution The original Norman invaders of 1066 (Remember William the Conqueror - the Norman bastard?)The Magna Carta and its Rule of Law.Elizabeth.1603 James I - then Charles I -/1658 then Oliver Cromwell and English Civil War1660 Charles II -then James II.(quasi catholic)1688 Glorious Revolution with William and MaryIt has all been about establishing the worth of the individual vs. the rulers.By the time of the Glorious Revolution it is pretty clear that the common man in England has rights not enjoyed anywhere else in the world.
22The Glorious Revolution How it all begins.../1658 then Oliver Cromwell and English Civil War1660 Charles II -then James II.(quasi catholic)
23Constitutional Monarchy The Kings ReturnCharles IIRestorationRebirth of English Culture
24Constitutional Monarchy The Kings ReturnAvoided fights with ParliamentDid fight with Dutch and won the American colony of New Amsterdam (renamed it New York)French and British rivalry restarts - this one lasts 150 years!He led a hedonistic courtQueen never had kids but he had 12 illegitimate ones
25Constitutional Monarchy The Kings ReturnWanted toleration of CatholicismParliament hated that!He was forced to abandon any efforts to bring religious toleration
26Charles II (Catholic) has no heir It looks like James II - his brother - an avowed Catholic might inherit!England is divided over this issueNot enough for another bloody civil war like the one with they just had with the Cavaliers and RoundheadsThis will be a peaceful revolution
27Constitutional Monarchy ToriesWhigsoutlawsbelieved James II (Roman Catholic) should rulebelieved in Anglican Churchbelieved in monarchy - enough to accept a Roman Catholic ruler like Jameshorse thief = rebelliousOMG! James II is Catholic!need/want strong Parliament and believed they had the right to oppose James as rulerMolly, do not skip this one!
28James II seems to be inheriting the throne Parliament divides over who should inherit throneWhigs v. ToriesGloriousRevolutionpower passed without bloodshedEnglish Bill of Rights signedParliament offersthrone to Protestant Mary (daughter of James II) and husband William of Orange
30Glorious Revolution Democracy The English Bill of Rights was passed by Parliament after the Glorious Revolution of Power wastransferred from Catholic James II to his son-in-law and daughter, William and Mary, both of whom were Protestant. The Bill of Rights ensured the supremacy of Parliament over the monarchy in England. England was still not a true democracy, but it was taking steps toward becoming one.
32Toleration Act - Religious Freedoms (protect everyone but Roman Catholics and Jews) Act of Settlement Keeps Catholics from the throne - if William III dies with no heirs then throne goes to Mary’s Protestant sister Anne...and so on - always to Protestants
331700 England is a Constitutional Monarchy ParliamentHouse of CommonsHouse of LordsPrime MinisterCabinet
34Act of Union - united Scotland and England Scotland didn’t like itencouraged trade
35Review Peter the Great and Catherine the Great changed Russia by 1. abolishing all social class distinctions 2. becoming constitutional monarchs 3. preventing wars with neighboring nations 4. introducing western ideas and customs
36review“God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake, at his pleasure; to give life or send death; to judge…and to be judged (by) none…And the like power have kings;…”Which idea is described by this passage? 1. theory of divine right 2. enlightened despotism 3. Social Darwinism 4. constitutional monarchy
37Review“. . .The person of the King is sacred, and to attack him in any way is an attack on religion itself. Kings represent the divine majesty and have been appointed by Him to carry out His purposes. Serving God and respecting kings are bound together.”—Bishop Jacques BossuetThis statement describes the philosophy that existed during the 1. existed during the 2. Age of Absolutism 3. Renaissance 4. Industrial Revolution