2What is Genetics?The branch of biology that seeks to explain biological variation
3HeredityTransmission of characteristics (traits) from parent to offspring
4Vocab You Should Recall: Diploid-a cell containing 2 sets of homologous chromosomes (2n)Haploid-a cell containing 1 set of chromosomes without a homologous pair (n)Gamete-a male or female sex cell (n)Zygote-a fertilized egg cell (2n)
5More to Recall: Chromosome Autosome Gene a long piece of DNA containing many allelesAutosomeAll chromosomes not involved in determining sexGeneThe length of DNA that codes for a trait.Genes come in pairs that separate in the formation of gametes.
6New Vocab Genotype Phenotype An organisms genetic make-up (DNA code passed on from parents to offspring)Phenotype- The physical appearance of a gene (visible trait)
8Phenotype = Genotype + Environment. What is the relationship between genes (genotype) and observable characteristics (phenotype)?Phenotype = Genotype + Environment.Genetically identical hydrangeas growing in soils of different acidity (different environments).The phenotype = genotype + environment principle applies equally to human traits.
9Different Genotypes Can Produce the Same Phenotype
10Characteristic: d=dominant / r=recessive Classroom GeneticsCharacteristic: d=dominant / r=recessiveNumber w/trait% of Class with TraitHairlinewidow's peak (d)continuous hairline (r)Earlobesunattached (d)attached (r)Hitchhiker's thumbtop segment of thumb straight (d)top segment of thumb can be bent back (r)U-shaped tongueable to roll tongue in trough-like shape (d)unable to roll tongue (r)
11NondisjunctionFailure of homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis
13Allele Homozygous Heterozygous Alternative versions of a gene (one from each parent 2 alleles = one gene)HomozygousHaving a pair of identical alleles for a characteristic (pure)HeterozygousHaving 2 different alleles for a characteristic (hybrid)For example, the gene for seed shape in pea plants exists in two forms:one form or allele for round seed shape (R)the other for wrinkled seed shape (r).A homozygous plant would contain the following alleles for seed shape:RR or rr.A heterozygous plant would contain the alleles Rr
14In heterozygote, the allele that is expressed in phenotype Recessive Dominant-In heterozygote, the allele that is expressed in phenotypeRecessiveIn heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotypeEarlobes:Free ear lobes (dominant trait)Attached ear lobes (recessive trait)Mid- Didget Finger Hair:Present – even if just one hair (dominant trait)Not present (recessive)Freckles:Freckles (dominant trait)No freckles (recessive)Widow’s PeakPresent- (dominant trait)Not present- (recessive)Dimples:Dimples (dominant trait)No dimples (recessive trait)Tongue-Rolling:Rolling up edges (dominant trait)not rolling (recessive)
15Monohybrid Crossa genetic cross between individuals differing in one traitDihybrid Cross- a cross between individuals differing in two traits
16F1 Cross-The first generation of hybrid offspring in a genetic crossF2 CrossOffspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
17Test Cross Punnett square- Breeding of recessive homozygote with dominant phenotype, but unknown genotypePunnett square-diagram used by biologists to predict the possible outcome of a genetic cross
18Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel (1823- 1884) Known as the “Father of Modern Genetics”Augustinian Monk who wondered how plants obtain atypical characteristicsWrote “Experiments with Hybrid Plants”
19Why Peas? Easy to grow Fast growing Self-fertilizing could grow many generations during his 8-year experimentSelf-fertilizingdon’t need a mate
20Traits he looked at:He DID NOT study traits with a continuous range of variation (like seed size)He chose traits with an either-or form. For example:Short or tallSmooth or wrinkled peasGreen or yellow pods and seeds
21Mendel’s Experiments1st, he needed true-breeding varieties (homozygous dominant) for each of the traits --this took years.He then found an “atypical” variety of plant (homozygous recessive) and transplanted them next to typical varieties and recorded which progeny arose.He found that all offspring retained the essential traits from parents.
22Mendel crossed plants with wrinkled peas and plants with smooth peas Would the offspring plants produce smoothish-rough pods?Would some of the pods be smooth and some be rough?Mendel found that the next generation of plants produced only smooth peas.However, when those smooth pod plants self-fertilized, some plants in the next generation produced rough pods.
24Punnett Square:Predicts offspring genotype from parental gamates in a visual form:
25Tongue RollingIn order for Dolly to be a non-tongue roller, her mom has to be heterozygous for tongue rollingDolly cannot roll her tongue, so we know she is homozygous recessive for that trait.Phenotype: non rollerGenotype: ttDolly’s dad cannot roll his tongue eitherDolly’s mom can roll her tongue.Phenotype: rollerGenotype: TT or TtIn order to have a daughter who cannot roll her tongue, what does Dolly’s mom genotype have to be?tT?TtTttt-ttt-tt
26Some Alleles Are Related Through Incomplete Dominance pattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between those of the parents.
27Some generalizations for genetics problems: Two alleles are necessary for a traitThe genes are symbolized by the first letter of the dominant gene.The letter for the dominant gene is always capitalized.The letter for the recessive trait is always lower case (make sure you can tell the difference between the two)Wild Type is the typical form of the organism, strain, or genePure traits are those with identical genes (homozygous).Hybrids have mixed genes for the same trait (heterozygous).Gametes only carry one allele for each trait (they are haploid)
28Gregor Mendel’s Rules of Inheritance Rule of Dominance and Recessiveness:The allele that expresses itself in the phenotype when a gene is heterozygous (hybrid) is the dominant allele. The allele that is masked is the recessive allele. Ex. Tongue rolling.Rule of Incomplete Dominance:When a gene is heterozygous, incomplete dominance (or codominance) results when the phenotype is a mixture of the two genotypes. Ex. Red, pink and white snapdragons.Rule of Segregation:During Meiosis, two alleles of a gene separate during the formation of gametes (egg and sperm).Rule of Independent Assortment:Alleles of one gene separate independently of the alleles of any other gene. In other words, the way in which one pair of alleles segregates has nothing to do with the way any other pair of alleles segregate.
29Probability:It’s the mathematical tool used for predicting the likelihood of events in everyday lifeThe expected frequency of a particular event when an experiment is repeated an infinite number of times is the probability of the event.Probabilities in genetics are often predicted based on certain hypotheses and then the predictions are used to test the hypothesis using real data.Mendel actually did this with pea plants. He predicted outcomes and then tested them thousands of times over 8 years!
30It is usually expressed as a fraction. Probability = # times event is expected to happen # opportunities (trials)It is usually expressed as a fraction.Ex.The chance of a coin landing heads up is one out of two or ½The chance of drawing an ace out of a deck of cards is 4 out of 52 or 1/13Or explained as a percentage chance.There is a 50% chance of a coin landing heads up when you toss it.There is a 7.7% chance of picking an ace up from a deck of cards.
31Why can the principles of probability be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses? The way in which the alleles segregate is completely random, like a coin flip.
32Segregation of Alleles Principle of Segregation:Genes come in pairs that separate in the formation of sex cells (and these sex cells unite randomly at fertilization).
33Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder. In order to have the disease, an individual has to be homozygous recessive (ff)A man and woman are both carriers for cystic fibrosis (Ff). What are the chances of them having a child with the disorder?FfFFFfFfff
34First Law of Probability the results of one chance event have no effect on the results of subsequent chance events.ex. My cousin already has 3 boys. His wife is pregnant. What is the probability of his fourth child being a boy?If my friend Victoria and her husband Peter are carriers of cystic fibrosis and have already had a son with the disorder, what are their chances of having another child with the disorder?¼ or 25%
35Two Other Rules of Probability you’ll need to understand Rule of Multiplication-the probability of a compound event is equal to the PRODUCT of the separate probabilities of the independent single eventsProbability of event a and b happening = p(a)p(b)Ex. The probability of flipping a coin and getting 2 tails in a row:The probability of flipping tails on the 1st penny=The probability of flipping tails on the 2nd penny=The probability of getting tails on both pennies==x
36Rule of Addition-The probability of an event that can occur in two or more alternative ways is the SUM of the separate probabilities of the different ways.Ex. The probability of flipping 1 head and 1 tail in a toss with 2 coins:The probability of flipping tails on the 1st penny and heads on the 2nd penny = (½)(½) =The probability of flipping heads on the 1st penny and tails on the 2nd penny= (½)(½) =The probability of getting one tail and one head in a toss with 2 coins =+=1/2
37Practice ProblemsWhat is the probability of any couple having 4 boys in a row?½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/16 or 6.25%What is the probability of my friend Victoria and her husband having two kids with cystic fibrosis?¼ x ¼ = 1/16
38Is the following sentence true or false? The past outcomes of coin flips greatly affect the outcomes of future coin flips.False
39You must flip the coin many times. How can you be sure of getting the expected 50 : 50 ratio from flipping a coin?You must flip the coin many times.Therefore, the _____ number of offspring from a genetic cross, the closer the resulting numbers will get to expected values.Larger
40What Works for Peas Also Works for Humans Albinism is a autosomal recessive condition.In order to show the disorder, an individual has to be homozygous recessive (aa)Refer to the following punnett squares to see the possible offspring for different scenarios:
42Mendel performed dihybrid crosses to find out. Are Different Characters Like Color and Shape Inherited Together or Inherited Independently?Mendel performed dihybrid crosses to find out.Mendel’s conclusion:Different characters are inherited independently.
43Incomplete Dominancepattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between those of the parents.
44How to make a two gene cross: Meiocytes - diploid cells that form haploid gametes– a.k.a. germ cellsAaAABbbbEgg meiocyte Sperm meiocyte
45Determine the types of gametes that each parent forms, according to Mendel’s laws: The Law of Equal Segregationthe 2 members of a gene pair segregate equally into gametesb) The Law of Independent Assortment:different gene pairs assort independently from one another (unless otherwise noted)
46How do I do this? Perform a cross. Align the 2N genotype horizontally (one locus) and vertically (the second locus) on a square. Do this for each meiocyte.egg meiocyte sperm meiocyteA a A AB bb b2) Perform a cross, fill in each cell of the square. Each cell is one of the types of gametes formed by the meiocyte.B AB aB b Ab Abb Ab ab b Ab Ab
47Figure out what the gametes are that the parents can make. Or:Figure out what the gametes are that the parents can make.Using the F.O.I.L. method from mathAaBb :First-ABOuter-AbInner-aBLast-ab
48Next, combine the male and female gametes. These combine at random upon fertilization.ABAbaBab
50The Dihybrid Cross: a cross between 2 individuals that are heterozygote at the same two genes Using Mendel’s strategy consider A=yellow, a=green. B=round, b=wrinkledP: AA BB x aa bb (cross two pure lines)F1: Aa Bb x Aa Bb (the dihybrid cross, between 2 F1 progeny)F2: genotypes phenotypesAB Ab aB ab9 A- B- (yellow, round)3 A- bb (yellow, wrinkled)3 aa B- (green, round)1 aa bb (green, wrinkled)ABAbaBabAABB AABb AaBB AaBbAABb AAbb AaBb AabbAaBB AaBb aaBB aaBbAaBb Aabb aaBb aabb