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EOC Review #1: Scientific Method and Chemistry of Life

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1 EOC Review #1: Scientific Method and Chemistry of Life
How can you tell the difference between science and non-science? (SC.912.N.2.1) What is the difference between inference and observation? (SC.912.N.1.6) How is hydrogen bonding between molecules related to the structure of the water molecule? (SC.912.L.18.12) What is the relationship between hydrogen ions (H+) and pH? How is pH related to a solution’s acidity? (SC.912.L.18.12) Compare and contrast adhesion and cohesion, using capillary action as an example. (SC.912.L.18.12) How does water’s polarity influence its properties as a solvent? (SC.912.L.18.12) Describe the structure and functions of the four major macromolecules. (SC.912.L.18.1) How does the protein’s structure relate to its function? (SC.912.L.18.1) Compare enzyme activity to a lock and key.(SC.912.L.18.11) How can changes in an enzyme’s surroundings influence its action? (SC.912.L.18.11)

2 EOC Review #2: Cells and Cellular Energy
Summarize three statements from the cell theory. Explain the significance of the cell theory to biology. (SC.912.L.14.1) How does the everyday use of the word “theory” influence how people think about scientific theories? (SC.912.N.3.1) Why is the interior membrane of the mitochondria highly folded? (SC.912.L.14.2) Explain why a cell wall is needed in plant cells, but not in animal cells. (SC.912.L.14.2) How do facilitated diffusion and active transport differ? (SC.912.L.14.2) How is energy from sunlight used to make sugar? (SC.912.L.18.7) Compare the storage capacity of ATP and glucose. How does the cell use each of these molecules to store energy? (SC.912.L.18.10) Trace the events that occur in the chloroplast during photosynthesis. (SC.912.L.18.7, SC.912.L.18.9) What effect does the presence of oxygen have on the events that follow glycolysis? Trace the events of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis. (SC.912.L.18.8, SC.912.L.18.9)

3 EOC Review #3: Plants and Cell Division
In what ways do the leaves of a plant depend on the plant’s roots and stem? (SC.912.L.14.7) Describe three main functions of a plant leaf. (SC.912.L.14.7) Explain why the stomata of a plant open after the plant has been watered. (SC.912.L.14.7) How can a tree which is rooted in place produce offspring with another tree hundreds of miles away? (SC.912.L.14.7) How are fruits and seeds important adaptations for plants? (SC.912.L.14.7) What kinds of problems does growth cause for cells? How does cell division help a cell solve these problems? (SC.912.L.16.14) Describe what happens during the four phases of mitosis. (SC.912.L.16.14) Describe how cancer cells are different from other cells. Based on these differences, explain why cancer has been such a difficult condition to cure. (SC.912.L.16.8)

4 EOC Review #4: Heredity and Reproduction
Describe the structure of a DNA molecule. What might the similarity between the four bases indicate about the origins of life on Earth? (SC.912.L.16.3, SC.912.L.16.9) Describe the process of DNA replication. Why does a cell need to replicate its DNA quickly? (SC.912.L.16.3, SC.912.L.16.9) How does cellular information pass from one generation to another? Explain why chromosomes, not genes, independently assort. (SC.912.L.16.16) What is the relationship between meiosis and genetic disorders such as Down’s Syndrome and Turner’s Syndrome? (SC.912.L.16.16) Compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. How are the two processes similar? How are the two processes different? (SC.912.L.16.17) If a human had their bone marrow removed, altered genetically, and re-implanted, would the change be passed on to their children? (SC.912.L.16.16) How does a human develop from a single cell to a newborn baby? (SC.912.L.16.13)

5 EOC Review #5: Genetics and Biotechnology
How does information flow from within the cell nucleus to direct the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm? (SC.912.L.16.5) Contrast the functions of the three main types of RNA. (SC.912.L.16.5) Mendel might have been surprised to learn that genes simply contain the instructions for assembling proteins. What do proteins have to do with the phenotype of an organism? (SC.912.L.16.5) Why is it that a Punnett Square is only useful as a predictive tool? (SC.912.L.16.1) Why is it that a genotype of an organism can always tell you its phenotype, but a phenotype can only sometimes tell you its genotype? (SC.912.L.16.2) Explain the difference between complete dominance, incomplete dominance and codominance. (SC.912.L.16.1, SC.912.L.16.2) What potential dangers exist to the environment and to society if we allow every individual to make their own decisions with regards to increasing the use of biotechnology in our everyday lives? (SC.912.L.16.10) Why do some kinds of point mutations cause greater changes in proteins than others? (SC.912.L.16.4)

6 EOC Review #6: Theory of Evolution
Why doesn’t the phrase “survival of the fittest” accurately reflect Darwin’s concept of the evolutionary fitness? (SC.912.L.15.13, SC.912.L.15.14) Why is it said that natural selection acts on phenotypes rather than on the genetic material of an organism? (SC.912.L.15.13) What are the benefits and consequences of artificial selection? Compare the similarities and differences between natural selection and artificial selection. (SC.912.L.15.13) What are five factors that can lead to evolution occurring at the population level? (SC.912.L.15.14) How is the idea of common descent supported by examples of homologous structures? (SC.912.L.15.1) What is wrong with the statement “it hasn’t been proven?” (SC.912.N.3.1) “A larger brain means a smarter organism.” Explain why this is true or false. (SC.912.L.15.10) Draw a basic diagram of the brain identifying the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, midbrain, pons, and the four lobes (frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal). (SC.912.L.14.26)

7 EOC Review #7: Origins of Life and Classification
Describe Stanley Miller and Harold Urey’s famous experiment. Describe their results as well and the significance behind their findings. (SC.912.L.15.8) Define and explain the endosymbiotic theory. (SC.912.L.15.8) Why is it important for biologists to include scientific names for organisms when reporting their findings to other biologists around the world? (SC.912.L.15.6, SC.912.L.15.4) What are some limitations of the Linnaean classification system? (SC.912.L.15.6) What role does molecular evidence play in determining how closely two species are related to each other? (SC.912.L.15.4, SC.912.L.15.5) How have new discoveries helped us to redefine the relationships among organisms? Give an example. (SC.912.L.15.5)

8 EOC Review #8: Ecology Why is a herbivorous diet more energy efficient than a carnivorous diet? (SC.912.L.17.9) How might the stability of an ecosystem be affected if all the decomposers were suddenly removed? (SC.912.L.17.9) How might an oil spill in the ocean affect an aquatic food web? What might happen to the food web on land located near the spill? (SC.912.L.17.9) Discuss four ways population size can change. Differentiate between exponential and logistic growth. (SC.912.L.17.5) How might a density-dependent limiting factor be affected by a flood or some other natural disaster? (SC.912.L.17.5) Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession. (SC.912.L.17.4) What are introduced species? How are they a threat to biodiversity? (SC.912.L.17.8) Explain how having bottled drinking products, and other bottled items, is both a benefit and a detriment to our environment. (SC.912.L.17.20) How has human expansion impacted animal habitats and the environment? (SC.912.L.17.20) The progressive increase in Earth’s human carrying capacity came from advances in technology. What density-independent and density independent limiting factors may prevent the human population from continued growth? (SC.912.L.17.11)

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