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Chapter 2 Transmission Genetics: Heritage from Mendel

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1 Chapter 2 Transmission Genetics: Heritage from Mendel

2 Gregor Mendel G. Mendel carried out his experiments from 1856 to 1863 in a small garden plot nestled in a corner of the St. Thomas monastery in the town of Brno He published the results and his interpretation in its scientific journal in 1866 Mendel’s paper contains the first clear exposition of the statistical rules governing the transmission of hereditary elements from generation to generation

3 Mendel’s Genetic Hypothesis
Each parent contributes to its progeny distinct elements of heredity = factors = genes Factors remain unchanged as they pass through generations Mendel thought in quantitative, numerical terms. He looked for statistical regularities in the outcome from his crosses

4 Mendel’s Experiments Experimental organism: garden pea, Pisum sativum
Advantages: many known varieties with different alternative traits, self-fertilization, easy artificial fertilization True-breading varieties = self-fertilized plants produce only progeny like themselves

5 Figure 2.1: Crossing pea plants

6 Figure 2.2: Reciprocal crosses of truebreeding pea plants

7 Figure 2.3: The seven character differences in peas studied by Mendel

8 Mendel’s Experiments True-breading plants with different forms of a trait, such as round vs. wrinkled seeds All of the F1 progeny exhibited only one parental trait (round seeds) In F2 generation obtained by self-fertilization of F1 plants, the observed ratio of visible traits was 3 round : 1 wrinkled Outcome of cross was independent of whether the trait came from the male or female parent: reciprocal crosses produced the same result

9 Figure 2.5: Expression of Mendel’s traits in plants and seeds

10 Table 2.1 Results of Mendel’s monohybrid experiments

11 Mendel’s Hypothesis Each true-breading parent has two identical copies of the genetic information specifying the trait = homozygous Each gamete contains only one copy of a hereditary factor specifying each trait Random fertilization unites two copies of the gene in the progeny F1 progeny contains different variants (alleles) of the gene = heterozygous

12 Mendel’s Hypothesis The genetic constitution of an organism = genotype
The observable properties of an organism = phenotype In the cross between round and wrinkled seed pea plants: Round seed parent has two identical copies of genetic information = its genotype = AA The genotype of a wrinkled seed parent = aa

13 Dominance Round seed parent contributes “A” gamete to offspring
Wrinkled seed parent contributes “a” gamete to offspring Offspring genotype = A + a = Aa contains one copy of “A” and one copy of “a” All offspring produce round seeds although their genotype is “Aa” because “A” is dominant and “a” is recessive

14 Round vs. Wrinkled: Modern Context
The gene that determines the shape of a seed encodes an enzyme, starch-branching enzyme I (SBEI), required to synthesize a branched-chain form of starch known as amylopectin Round (W) seeds contain amylopectin and shrink uniformly as they dry Wrinkled (w) seeds lack amylopectin and shrink irregularly

15 Round vs. Wrinkled: Modern Context
Wrinkled peas have an inborn error in starch metabolism The molecular basis of the wrinkled (w) mutation = SBEI gene is interrupted by the insertion of a DNA sequence called a transposable element Transposable elements = DNA sequences capable of moving (transposition) from one location to another

16 Round vs. Wrinkled: Modern Context
A procedure called gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA molecules of different sizes DNA fragment corresponding to the W form of the SBEI gene moves farther than the w fragment, because the w fragment is larger (owing to the insertion of the transposable element)

17 Figure 2.4: Banding as a result of distinct sizes of DNA molecules

18 Round vs. Wrinkled: Modern Context
Classical geneticists studied primarily morphological traits = the shape of a seed is manifestly round or wrinkled Modern geneticists study morphological traits, too, but they supplement this with molecular traits = the pattern of bands in a gel Morphological traits are frequently dominant or recessive, but this is not necessarily true of molecular traits

19 Round vs. Wrinkled: Modern Context
When alternative forms of a gene (W and w) can both be detected when they are present in the cell, we say that the forms of the gene are codominant Molecular traits are often (but by no means always) codominant Dominance is not an intrinsic feature of a gene; it rather depends on the method we chose to examine it

20 Figure 2.6: A diagrammatic explanation of the 3 : 1 ratio of
dominant : recessive visible traits observed

21 Figure 20: Three attributes of phenotype affected by Mendel’s alleles W and w

22 Segregation When an F1 plant is self-fertilized, the A and a determinants segregate from one another and are included in the gametes in equal numbers The gametes produced by segregation come together in pairs at random to yield the progeny of the next generation In the F2 generation, the ratio of the progeny with dominant trait to the progeny with recessive trait is 3:1. In case of round and wrinkle seeds, 3/4 round and 1/4 wrinkled offspring

23 The Principle of Segregation
In the formation of gametes, the paired hereditary determinants (genes) segregate in such a way that each gamete is equally likely to contain either member of the pair

24 Monohybrid Genetic Cross
Genetic cross : Aa X Aa produces A and a gametes from each parent Punnett square shows four possible outcomes = AA, Aa, aA, and aa Three combinations = AA, Aa, and aA produce plants with round seeds and display a round phenotype Fourth combination = aa displays wrinkled phenotype

25 Figure 2.7: In the F2 generation, the ratio of WW : Ww : ww is 1 : 2 : 1.

26 Monohybrid Genetic Cross
Parents: Aa X Aa Each parent produces A and a gametes and contributes one gamete at fertilization 1/4 1/2 1/4 AA Aa aa round round wrinkled dominant dominant recessive

27 Figure 2.8: Mendel’s results of self-fertilization of the F2 progeny

28 Testcross Analysis Testcross = a cross between an organism of dominant phenotype (genotype unknown) and an organism of recessive phenotype (genotype known to be homozygous recessive) In a testcross, the relative proportion of the different gametes produced by the heterozygous parent can be observed directly in the proportion of phenotypes of the progeny, because the recessive parent contributes only recessive alleles

29 Testcross Results AA + aa = Aa – testcross produces dominant progeny only: parent homozygous Aa + aa = 1/2 Aa + 1/2 aa – testcross produces 1/2 dominant and 1/2 recessive individuals: parent heterozygous

30 Figure 2.9: A testcross shows the result of segregation directly in the phenotypes of the progeny

31 Table 2.2 Results of Mendel’s testcross experiments

32 Dihybrid Cross Mendel studied inheritance of two different traits, such as seed color (yellow vs. green) and seed shape (round vs. wrinkled) in the same cross = dihybrid cross The F1 progeny were hybrid for both characteristics, and the phenotype of the seeds was round (dominant to wrinkled) and yellow (dominant to green) In the F2 progeny, he observed the 9 round yellow : 3 wrinkled yellow : 3 round green : 1 wrinkled green ratio

33 Dihybrid Cross Mendel carried out similar experiments with other combinations of traits. For each pair of traits, he consistently observed the 9:3:3:1 ratio He also deduced the biological reason for the observation: In the F2 progeny, if the 3:1 ratio of round: wrinkled is combined at random with the 3:1 ratio of yellow: green, it yields the 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross

34 Figure 2.10: 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 ratio that Mendel observed in the
F2 progeny of the dihybrid cross

35 Independent Segregation
The Principle of Independent Assortment: Segregation of the members of any pair of alleles is independent of the segregation of other pairs in the formation of reproductive cells. Figure 2.11: Independent segregation of the Ww and Gg allele pairs

36 Figure 2.12: Diagram showing the basis for the 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 ratio of F2 phenotypes resulting from a cross

37 Figure 2.13: The ratio of homozygous dominant, heterozygous, and homozygous recessive genotypes

38 Dihybrid Testcross The progeny of testcrosses show the result of independent assortment The double heterozygotes produce four types of gametes in equal proportions, the ww gg plants produce one type The progeny phenotypes are expected to consist of round yellow, round green, wrinkled yellow, and wrinkled green in a ratio of 1:1:1:1 This observation confirmed Mendel’s assumption that the gametes of a double heterozygote included all possible genotypes in approximately equal proportions

39 Figure 2.14: Genotypes and phenotypes resulting from a testcross of a Ww Gg double heterozygote

40 Trihybrid Genetic Cross
Trihybrid cross = three pairs of elements that assort independently, such as WwGgPp For any pair phenotypic ratio = 3:1 For any two pairs ratio = 9:3:3:1 Trihybrid cross pattern of segregation and independent assortment is identical to dihybrid

41 Probabilities Mendelian patterns of inheritance follow laws of probability Addition Rule: The probability of the realization of one or the other of two mutually exclusive events, A or B, is the sum of their separate probabilities Prob {WW or Ww} = Prob {WW} + Prob{Ww} = = 0.75

42 Figure 2.15: The use of the addition and multiplication rules to determine the probabilities of genotypes and phenotypes

43 Figure 2.16: Two important types
Probabilities Multiplication Rule: The probability of two independent events, A and B, being realized simultaneously is given by the product of their separate probabilities Prob {WG} = Prob {W} x Prob{G} = 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.25 Figure 2.16: Two important types of independence

44 Figure 2.17: Conventional symbols used in depicting human pedigrees
Pedigree Analysis In humans, pedigree analysis is used to determine individual genotypes and to predict the mode of transmission of single gene traits Figure 2.17: Conventional symbols used in depicting human pedigrees

45 Autosomal Dominant Huntington disease is a progressive nerve degeneration, usually beginning about middle age, that results in severe physical and mental disability and ultimately in death The trait affects both sexes Every affected person has an affected parent ~1/2 the offspring of an affected individual are affected Figure 2.18: Pedigree of a human family showing the inheritance of the dominant gene for Huntington disease

46 Autosomal Recessive Albinism = absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and iris of the eyes The trait affects both sexes Most affected persons have parents who are not themselves affected; the parents are heterozygous for the recessive allele and are called carriers Approximately 1/4 of the children of carriers are affected The parents of affected individuals are often relatives

47 Figure 2.19: Pedigree of albinism, a recessive genetic disorder

48 Incomplete Dominance Incomplete dominance = the phenotype of the heterozygous genotype is intermediate between the phenotypes of the homozygous genotypes Incomplete dominance is often observed when the phenotype is quantitative rather than discrete Figure 2.21: Incomplete dominance in the inheritance of flower color in snapdragons

49 Multiple Alleles/Codominance
Codominance means that the heterozygous genotype exhibits the traits associated with both homozygous genotypes Codominance is more frequent for molecular traits than for morphological traits Multiple alleles = presence in a population of more than two alleles of a gene ABO blood groups are specified by three alleles IA, IB and IO IA and IB codominant, both IA and IB are dominant to IO

50 Multiple Alleles/Codominance
People of: blood type O make both anti-A and anti-B antibodies blood type A make anti-B antibodies blood type B make anti-A antibodies blood type AB make neither type of antibody

51 Figure 2.22: The ABO antigens on the surface of human red blood cells are carbohydrates

52 Table 2.3 Genetic control of the Human ABO Blood Groups

53 Figure 2.23: Antibodies against blood type antigens

54 Expressivity and Penetrance
A mutant gene is not always expressed in exactly in the same way Variation in the phenotypic expression of a particular genotype may happen because other genes modify the phenotype or because the biological processes that produce the phenotype are sensitive to environment Variable expressivity refers to genes that are expressed to different degrees in different organism Penetrance refers to the proportion of organisms whose phenotype matches their genotype for a given trait. A genotype that is always expressed has a penetrance of 100 percent

55 Epistasis Epistasis refers to any type of gene interaction that results in the F2 dihybrid ratio of 9:3:3:1 being modified into some other ratio In a more general sense, it means that one gene is masking the expression of the other Flower color in peas: formation of the purple pigment requires the dominant allele of both the C and P genes: the F2 ratio is modified to 9 purple:7 white Figure 2.24: A cross showing epistasis in the determination of flower color in peas

56 Epistasis There are nine possible dihybrid ratios when both genes show complete dominance Examples: 9:7 occurs when a homozygous recessive mutation in either or both of two different genes produces the same phenotype 12:3:1 results when a dominant allele of one gene masks the genotype of a different gene 9:3:4 is observed when homozygosity for a recessive allele masks the expression of a different gene

57 Figure 2. 25: Modified F2 dihybrid ratios
Figure 2.25: Modified F2 dihybrid ratios. In each row, different colors indicate different phenotypes

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