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Genetics Review (Basic). 1. What is the molecule that carries all the information about how a living thing will look and function? DNA.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetics Review (Basic). 1. What is the molecule that carries all the information about how a living thing will look and function? DNA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetics Review (Basic)

2 1. What is the molecule that carries all the information about how a living thing will look and function? DNA

3 2. Where is DNA located in a eukaryotic cell? DNA is located in the nucleus

4 3. What are the factors that control an individual’s characteristics and are passed down from parent to offspring? Genes

5 4. Where are genes located? On DNA Gene 1 Gene 2

6 5. Some genes come in more than one form that can express different traits. What are these different forms called? Alleles Spot Color Gene Red spot allele Yellow spot allele

7 6. The principle which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive. Principle of Dominance Kinked tails are dominant over straight tails.

8 7. A specific characteristic of an individual, like flower color. Trait

9 8. The process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell. Fertilization

10 9. The separation of alleles. Segregation White flower allele p Purple flower allele P

11 10. Another name for sex cells. Gametes Sperm Egg

12 11. The likelihood that a particular event will occur. Probability

13 12. The probability that a coin will come up heads three times in a row. ½ = 1/8 ½ ½ x x ?

14 13. Having two identical alleles for a particular gene. Homozygous Tall allele T T

15 14. The physical characteristics of an organism. Phenotype

16 15. Having two different alleles for a particular gene. Heterozygous Tall allele Short allele T t

17 16. The genetic makeup of an organism. Genotype TtppRrIIgg YY

18 17. How many different gametes can a Tt individual produce? Two: T t

19 18. How many different gametes can a RrGg individual produce? Four: R rG gRrG g

20 Four: R rG gRrG g RGRGRGRG

21 Four: R rG gRrG g RGRGRGRG RgRgRgRg

22 Four: R rG gRrG g RGRGRGRG RgRgRgRg rG

23 19. How many different gametes can a IIrrYY individual produce? One: IIrrY Y I Y r

24 20. What is the square below called? x A Punnett Square R Round seed Wrinkled seed rLegend F1F1F1F1 P

25 21. What does P and F 1 stand for? x Parental generation R Round seed Wrinkled seed rLegend F1F1F1F1 P Filial generation (offspring)

26 22. What is the genotype of each parent? r r R r R Round seed Wrinkled seed rLegend F1F1F1F1 x ? ?

27 22. What is the genotype of each parent? r r R r R Round seed Wrinkled seed rLegendHeterozygous Homozygous recessive F1F1F1F1 x Rr rr

28 23. What is the phenotype of each parent? Round seeds Wrinkled seeds r r R r R Round seed Wrinkled seed rLegend F1F1F1F1 x Rr rr

29 24. Complete the Punnett Square? r r R r R Round seed Wrinkled seed rLegend RrRrRrRr RrRrRrRr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr F1F1F1F1 x Rr rr

30 25. What percent of the F 1 offspring are homozygous recessive? r r R r R Round seed Wrinkled seed rLegend RrRrRrRr RrRrRrRr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr F1F1F1F1 x Rr rr 50 %

31 26. For this cross, what percent of F 1 offspring will be homozygous dominant? x p p P P P Purple flower White flower pLegendPP pp PpPpPpPp PpPpPpPp PpPpPpPp PpPpPpPp F1F1F1F1 P 0 %

32 27. A principle that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes. Independent assortment

33 28. How many different gametes can the three sets of chromosomes shown below form when they assort independently ?

34 2 3 = Eight different gametes

35 29. Name the type of inheritance pattern displayed by the examples shown below. Roan cow Pinto (Paint) Erminette chicken Spangled chicken Codominance

36 30. Name the type of inheritance pattern shown below Incomplete dominance Parents F1F1F1F1 F2F2F2F2 X Hybrids X

37 31. Name the type of inheritance pattern displayed by the examples shown below. Multiple alleles P = pattern p = no pattern P M = Moon P B = Box

38 32. Name the type of inheritance pattern displayed by the examples shown below. Polygenic Inheritance Human eye color and fruit fly eye color

39 33. Besides genotype, what other factor influences how a snowshoe hare’s phenotype (coat color) changes over a period of one year? The environment

40 34. Put the following phases of meiosis I in the correct order of occurrence and then label them. C DE A B

41 C DE A B Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Interphase II

42 35. Put the following phases of meiosis II in the correct order of occurrence and then label them. C DE A B Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Interphase II J FI H G

43 35. Put the following phases of meiosis II in the correct order of occurrence and then label them. C DE A B Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Interphase II J FI H G

44 35. Put the following phases of meiosis II in the correct order of occurrence and then label them. CDEAB Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Interphase II JFI H G Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis

45 36. Draw a diagram showing the process of crossing over.

46 37. Draw two genes that are not linked. Because the black and green genes are on separate chromosomes, they are not linked.

47 38. Draw two genes that are linked. Linked genes Because the purple and white genes are on the same chromosome, they are linked.

48 39. Which gene pair is most likely to be separated by a crossing over event and why? Because genes B and C are very close to one another, there is a low probability that a crossing over event will occur between them. A B C Because genes A and C are far apart from each other, there is a high probability that a crossing over event will occur between them. Genes A and C

49 40. Who is this guy and what important work did he do? Gregor Mendel: He discovered some basic rules of heredity by experimenting with pea plants.


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