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1 Answer in 15 minutes Write true or false (with correct) 1- Metazoa Included Parazoa and metazoa. 2- Metazoa the animals have unicellular body. 3- Eumetazoa.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Answer in 15 minutes Write true or false (with correct) 1- Metazoa Included Parazoa and metazoa. 2- Metazoa the animals have unicellular body. 3- Eumetazoa."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Answer in 15 minutes Write true or false (with correct) 1- Metazoa Included Parazoa and metazoa. 2- Metazoa the animals have unicellular body. 3- Eumetazoa have bilateral symmetry only. 4- Parazoa cellular organization. 5- Parazoa are not differentiated cells in layers. 6- Parazoa have true tissues. 7- As example of parazoa are clams. 8- Triploblastic have 2 layers. 9- Eumetazoa divided to triploblastica and uniblastica. 10- Diploblastica have ectoderm, endoderm & mesoderm tissues. 11- Diploblastic have three tissues. 12- Triploblastic is important for movement. 13- Body cavity lying between the body wall and the internal organs. 14- Body cavity may be rich of Mesenchyme cells. 15- Bilateral animals having distinct body cavity. 16- for example of pseudocoelomates Acanthochiton. 17- Mesenchyme cells are occupying the space between the body wall and the anus of the animals. 18- The body cavity derived from the gut of the embryo. 19- This cavity is lined by mesodermal epithelium.

2 2 Answer in 15 minutes Write true or false (with correct) 20- Ceolom is Internal fluid-filled cavity. 21- Ceolomates have body cavity lined with mesoderm. 22- pseudocoelomates have body cavity partially lined with mesoderm. 23- Schizocoelous are liquid masses of mesoderm split to form the coelomic cavities As the archenteron. 24- Enterocoelous are not mesoderm buds off from the wall of the archenteron and hollows to become the coelomic cavities.

3 3

4 Lecture 2 4

5 Syllabus Introduction Phylum: Annelida (General charactes) Nereis Allolobophra caliginosa Hirudo medicinalis Phylum: Arthropoda (General charactes) Astacus fluviatulis & Neptunus pelagious Daphnia, Cyclops, Balanus Scolopendra morsitans, Lycosa ferox Phylum: Mollusca (General characters) Acanthochiton spinigira, Helix pomatia Loligo peadlii, Anodonta sp. Phylum: Echinodermata (General characters) Astropecten sp. 5

6 6

7 Aim Segmented worms ?  What do know about Segmented worms ? Segmentation ?  What do know about Segmentation ? Symmetry ?  What do know about Symmetry ? Organ Systems ?  What do know about Organ Systems ? Mechanism/Mode of Locomotion ?  What do know about Mechanism/Mode of Locomotion ? Typhlosole ?  What do know about Typhlosole ? Polychaeta ?  What do know about Polychaeta ? Body wall in Polychaeta ?  What do know about Body wall in Polychaeta ? habitat in Polychaeta ?  What do know about habitat in Polychaeta ? Organ Systems in Polychaeta ?  What do know about Organ Systems in Polychaeta ? 7

8 Remember 8

9 Phylum Annelida General characters 9

10  Segmented worms  15,000 species  Triploblastic  Protostome  Bilateral symmetry with cephalisation obscured in some species  Internal body space is partitioned ( فصل بحاجز ‏ - قسم ‏ by septae  Marine, freshwater and terrestrial (in moist soil/humus) species  Cutaneous respiration  Skin is highly vascularised and must stay moist Phylum Annelida General characters 10

11 is the subdivision of the body into segments  is the subdivision of the body into segments   Two advantages result from embryonic segmentation Each segment may develop a more or less complete set of adult organ systems. 1- Each segment may develop a more or less complete set of adult organ systems. Locomotion is far more effective because of increased flexibility of movement. 2-Locomotion is far more effective because of increased flexibility of movement. Phylum Annelida General characters Segmentation 11

12 Phylum Annelida General characters Segmentation 12

13 body space is partitioned by septae body space is partitioned by septae Phylum Annelida General characters Segmentation 13

14 Phylum Annelida General characters Symmetry 14

15 radial symmetry bilateral symmetry the parts of the body are arranged around a central axis the body has a right and left half that are mirror images of each other 1- Allows different organs to be located in different parts of the body. 2- Ultimately led to cephalization. 3- Evolution of a definite head and brain area. Phylum Annelida General characters Symmetry 15

16 Phylum Annelida General characters systems Muscular System 1- Muscular System Integumentary System 2- Integumentary System 3- Nervous System and Sensory organs 4- Circulatory System Respiratory System (gas exchange) 5- Respiratory System (gas exchange) 6- Digestive System (food/water supply) 7- Immune System 8- Excretory System 9- Reproductive System 16

17 1-Both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers Allows for coordination of propulsive muscular waves in body wall; peristalsis ( حركات تقلصية متتابعة فى قناة أو انبوب ( فى الجسم لدفع الغذاء أو الفضلات 2-Special muscles attached to setae to move setae 3- In polychaetes, oblique muscle groups run into the parapodia for movement Phylum Annelida General characters 1- Muscular System Note Mechanism/Mode of Locomotion peristalsis involving the alternating contractions of longitudinal and circular muscle * layers to change the shape of individual segments * Burrowing and creeping using peristalsis and/or parapodia 17

18 Integumentary System (skin)  1- Cellular epidermis that secretes a mucus  2-Thickened, non-living transparent cuticle  3-Cilia present in many forms chitinous setae often present; setae absent in leeches; greater number of setae in  4-As compared to oligochaetes  Allows for coordination of propulsive muscular waves Coelom is fluid-filled space Phylum Annelida General characters 18

19 Phylum Annelida General characters Integumentary System (skin) 19

20 Phylum Annelida General characters Note Not all organ systems are metameric (ينقسم إلى مفصصات أو أجزاء متماثلة متتابعة علىامتداد الجسم كجسم دودة الأرض) For example: the digestive system extends the length of the organism and is differentiated along its length. 20

21 Phylum Annelida General characters 21

22 Phylum Annelida General characters Nervous System  1- Consists of a brain.  2- cerebral ganglia with two fused ventral nerve cords.  3- various ganglia similar to arthropods.  (ganglion in each segment (metameric))  4- leeches have an anterior brain of six pairs of fused ganglia and a posterior brain of seven pairs of fused ganglia. 22

23 Phylum Annelida General characters Sensory Organs  sensory tentacles  Palps  Eyespots in polychaetes  (Especially on prostomium) 23

24 Phylum Annelida General characters Phylum Annelida General characters Circulatory System  1- closed circulatory system that is segmentally arranged with aortic arches (“hearts”)  2- and ventral and dorsal blood vessels surrounding pharynx for circulating blood  3- blood contains respiratory pigments including hemoglobin 4- Blood with haemoglobin as O 2 -carrying molecule 4- Blood with haemoglobin as O 2 -carrying molecule 24

25 Phylum Annelida General characters Respiratory System (gas exchange) Phylum Annelida General characters Respiratory System (gas exchange) 25 simple diffusioncutaneous respiration  gas exchange by simple diffusion = cutaneous respiration and/or  Gills in some polychaetes and/or  parapodia in polychaetes act as gills = example of convergent evolution to appendages specializedgillsin arthropods  and specialized gills seen in arthropods

26 Phylum Annelida General characters Digestive System (food/water supply)  Complete digestive system with mouth and anus, not segmentally arranged  well muscularized pharynx in oligochaetes Typhlosole  Crop for storage, Gizzard for grinding and Typhlosole with increase surface area for absorption in oligochaetes  In oligochaetes, ingested soil may contain high levels of calcium; calciferous glands along esophagus secrete calcium ions into gut to reduce calcium ion concentration and maintain acid-base balance in blood 26

27  In tube worm polychaetes, specialized feathery arms or radioles use ciliary هدبي action  Mucous to trap food particles of a digestible size  leeches are parasitic, but also predaceous and scavenging تنظيف on fluids and tissues  terrestrial leeches feed on insect larvae, earthworms and slugs 27 Phylum Annelida General characters Digestive System (food/water supply)

28 Phylum Annelida General characters Digestive System (food/water supply) Typhlosole 28

29 Phylum Annelida General characters Immune System  Ameobocytes found in blood 29

30 Phylum Annelida General characters Excretory System  Well developed metanephridia in most segments that involves removal of wastes from the blood and the coelom.  Generally have metanephridia; some have protonephridia each metanephridium has a ciliated funnel or nephrostome that leads by a small ciliated tubule through the septum in to the segment behind to a nephric tubule that empties into a bladder and waste is excreted out a nephridiopore (opening).  Aquatic annelids secrete ammonia.  Terrestrial oligochaetes secrete less toxic urea.  Osmoregulation occurs via the body surface and the nephridia. 30

31 Phylum Annelida General characters Reproductive System  -Monoecious in oligochaetes and leeches (Hirudinae) with internal fertilization and direct development (no larval stage = juvenile worms look like mini adults)  -Dioecious ( ثنائي البيت اي ان اعضاء التذكير التناسلية في فرد واعضاء التأنيث التناسلية في فرد اخر ) in polychaetes with external fertilization and formation of a trochophore larva. -Asexual = most highly organized animals capable of complete regeneration. - This ability varies considerably within the phylum. - Evolutionarily, regenerative capability has been lost in many species. -Both anterior (tail to head) and posterior (head to tail)  -Segment regeneration has been shown in some species. 31

32 Phylum Annelida General characters Reproductive System  Hermaphrodites - with cross fertilization  Clitellum is a special region at the anterior end of the worm that 1- secretes a mucus cocoon, 2-both during mating (to hold the worms together) 3-protective coat around eggs  Trochophore is typical larval stage 32

33 Phylum Annelida General characters Major Classes Class:Hirudinea Class:Oligochaeta Class:Polychaeta 33

34 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta  1- (pol'e-ke'ta) (Gr. polys, many, + chaiti?, long hair).  2- About 5300 species. used in locomotion  3- Segmented inside and out; parapodia used in locomotion with many large number of chitinous bristles setae  4- Distinct head with eyes  5- palps, and tentacles  6- No clitellum  7- Separate sexes  8- Trochophore larva usually present  9- Mostly marine.  10- Examples: Nereis 34

35 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta  Well - developed head.  *Prostomium is well equipped with sensory and feeding structures. JawsTeeth Postomial tentachels Peristomial palps Peristomial tentachels 35

36 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Body wall  It consists of an outer cuticle which is secreted by : The cells of the hypodermis just beneath it. several muscular layers under the hypodermis 36

37 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Bristle worms  1- Bristle worms Mostly marine 2- Mostly marine Most free-living (living in substrate or free-swimming), but some live in mucus- supported tubes that are surrounded by substrate 3- Most free-living (living in substrate or free-swimming), but some live in mucus- supported tubes that are surrounded by substrate Many are active predators, while others are filter feeders 4-Many are active predators, while others are filter feeders 37

38 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Habitat  Many crawl on or burrow in the seafloor.  A few drift and swim in the plankton.  Polychaetes include carnivores, scavengers, and planktivores.  The brightly colored fanworms trap planktonon feathery tentacles. 38

39 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta systems Nervous System Digestive system Circulatory System Respiratory system Excretory System Reproduction 39

40 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Nervous System  1-dorsal brain  (brain is fund above the pharynx in the head whis is consists of a pair of supra pharynx geal ganglia.  - it is connected with a pair of sub pharyngeal ganglia by acircumpharyngeal commissure on either side which from aring around the pharynx).  2- ventral, with a pair of ganglia  3-solid nerve cord, with ganglia in each segment.  4- Endocrine- hormones secreted by nervous system.  The brain gives off:-  A- An optic nerve to each eye  B- Palpal nerve to each palpus  C- Atentacular nerve to each group of tentacles.  5- Three pairs of nerves arise from each of ganglia of the ventral nerve chain  - One pair to 1- the parapodia  2- the anterior segment  3- the muscles of the segment 40

41 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Nervous System 41

42 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Digestive system Mouth Is located just below the prostomium, but in front of the modified segments - peristomium Esophagus Is surrounde d by digestive glands Pharynx Is equipped with pincer- like jaws Intestine 1-Straight 2-finally opens with anus in the anal segment 42

43 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Digestive system  1- The mouth opens into the pharynx which forms assort of proboscis.  (This is accomplished by protractor and retractor muscles ).  2- The pharynx leads into a slender esophagus which have digestive gland.  3 - Straight stomach following the esophagus it extending to the anus. 43

44 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Digestive system  Feeding:  Clamworms (Nereis) crawl about on marine surfaces hunting for food using well- developed sensory structures. Once located, prey are seized with chitinous jaws on a rapidly everted, muscular pharynx 44

45 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Digestive system Note Digestive system Digestive system Includes a muscular pharynx that can be everted through the mouth Includes a muscular pharynx that can be everted through the mouth 45

46 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Circulatory System  Closed system  Use hemoglobin as oxygen carrier. 46

47 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Circulatory System  1- The blood is contained in contractile tube ( the blood vessels ).  2- There is a dorsal vessel, that lies between the two dorsal longitudinal muscles bands ( which carried blood anteriorly ).  3- A ventral vessel below the intestine which carries blood posteriorly.  4- In each segment, the longitudinal vessels are connected on either by right and left transverse vessels to form networks of capillaries in parapodia. 47

48 Quiz 48

49 Answer 1- Parapodium 11- Ventral blood vessel 2- Coelom 12- Circular muscle 3- Dorsal blood vessel 13- Cuticle 4- Intestine 14- Nephridium 5- Longitudinal muscle 15- Nephridiopore 6- Capillary ped in parapodium Setae 16- Setae 7- Notopodium 8- Neuropodium 9- Transverse parapodial muscle 10-Venteral nerve cord 49

50 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Respiratory system Although many of the smaller polychaetes lack respiratory structures, the larger one do possess gills Although many of the smaller polychaetes lack respiratory structures, the larger one do possess gills Gills are usually modifications of the parapodia Gills are usually modifications of the parapodia 50

51 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Excretory System  Every segment contains a pair of nephridia except the peristomium and the anal segment.  Each nephridium opens into the coelomic cavity by means of a ciliated funnel.  Each nephridium passes posteriorly through the septum into the following segment. Where it forms coiled tube.  It opens at the base of aparapoium on the ventral surface through nephridiopore. 51

52 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Reproduction  1- Sexes are separate.  2- No well _ defined gonads are present but during breeding season ova or spermatozoa arise from the wall of the coelom in each segment except near the anterior end.  3- At this time the worm is differentiated into 2 regions:  An anterior atoke.  A posterior epitoke which contains the gonads.  4- The specialized worm is called aheteronereid. external  5- Fertilization occurs (external ) in the open water.  6- Trochophore larvae develop from the fertilized eggs. 52

53 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Reproduction 53

54 Phylum Annelida General characters Polychaeta Reproduction  Epitoky  Morphological changes that take place in many polychaetes associated with the reproductive activity in tube-dwelling species  At breeding time, many morphological changes associated with swimming allow the worms to leave their tubes and swarm to the surface of sea for mating 54

55 General view 55

56  1- Annelida are ……………., ………….., ………… and……… worms  1- Annelida are ……………., ………….., ………… and ……… worms.  2-  2- What the meaning of cutaneous respiration ?  3-  3- What the meaning of Segmentation ?  4-  4- What the advantages result from embryonic segmentation ?  5- Body space is partitioned by ……………  5- Body space is partitioned by …………….  6-  6- What the meaning of Symmetry ?  7-  7- Compare between two type of Symmetry ?  8- Symmetry are …………………and …………..  8- Symmetry are ………………… and …………...  9-  9- What the important of Symmetry ?  10  10- What are the systems of Annelida ?  11- Both longitudinal and ……………………………allows for coordinationof propulsive muscular waves in ………………………….  11- Both longitudinal and ……………………………..allows for coordination of propulsive muscular waves in …………………………..  Special muscles attached to …………to move it  Special muscles attached to …………. to move it.  12  12- What are the mechanism of locomotion of Annelida ?  13-  13- Illustrate Integumentary System ?  14- ………epidermis that secretes a ……..  14- ……… epidermis that secretes a ……...  56 Quiz

57 Quiz  15- ………………..transparent cuticle  15- ……………….. transparent cuticle.  16-setae absent in ……………  16- setae absent in …………….  17-Coelom is ……………….. Space  17- Coelom is ……………….. Space.  18-Not all organ systems are ……………..  18- Not all organ systems are ……………...  19-  19- Illustrate the nervous system with drawing ?  20- leeches have an … brain of ………pairs of fused ganglia and a …… brainof …… pairs of fused ganglia  20- leeches have an … brain of ……… pairs of fused ganglia and a …… brain of …… pairs of fused ganglia.  21-  21- What are the sensory organs of Annelida ?  22- Circulatory System in Annelida is ……………  22- Circulatory System in Annelida is …………….  23-ventral and dorsal blood vessels surrounding ……….for circulating…………  23- ventral and dorsal blood vessels surrounding ……….. for circulating ………….  24-Blood contains …………………………………including hemoglobin  24- Blood contains …………………………………..including hemoglobin.  25-Blood with hemoglobin as O2-carrying ……….  25- Blood with hemoglobin as O2-carrying ………... 57

58 Quiz  26-Gas exchange by simple ……………  26- Gas exchange by simple …………….  27- …………….in some polychaetes  27- ……………. in some polychaetes.  28- parapodia in polychaetes act as …………….  28- parapodia in polychaetes act as ……………..  29-………………………seen in arthropods  29- ………………………seen in arthropods.  30-A meobocytes found in ………………  30- A meobocytes found in ……………….  31-A meobocytes act as ……………. System  31- A meobocytes act as ……………. System.  32-………………digestive system with mouth and anus, not …………… arranged  32- ……………… digestive system with mouth and anus, not …………… arranged.  33-well muscularized pharynx in ……………  33- well muscularized pharynx in ……………..  34-Crop for ………Gizzard for …….and Typhlosole with increase surface area for……………….in oligochaetes  34- Crop for ………, Gizzard for ……. and Typhlosole with increase surface area for ………………. in oligochaetes  35-  35- In oligochaetes what is the function of calciferous glands ?  36-leeches are …………  36- leeches are ………….  37-Terrestrial leeches feed on …………….., ………………….. and……………..  37- Terrestrial leeches feed on …………….., ………………….. and …………… AS Respiratory System

59  38-Aquatic annelids secrete …………..  38- Aquatic annelids secrete …………...  39-excretory system ?  39- Write short notes on excretory system ?  40-Type of sex in oligochaetes …………..  40- Type of sex in oligochaetes …………..  41-Type of sex in polychaetes ……….. with external fertilization and formation of a ………….. larva  41- Type of sex in polychaetes ……….. with external fertilization and formation of a ………….. larva.  42-Annelids are ……………… with cross fertilization  42- Annelids are ……………… with cross fertilization.  43-…………….. is a special region at the anterior end of the worm.  43- …………….. is a special region at the anterior end of the worm.  44-clitellum  44- What is the function of clitellum ?  45-……………………. is typical larval stage  45- ……………………. is typical larval stage  46-  46- What are the major classes in Annelids?  47-  47- Write short notes on the three major classes in Annelids (what are you know about them ) ?  48-monoecious, dioecious  48- What the meaning of monoecious, dioecious ?  49-In polychaetes ……………………. used in locomotion with many large number of ………………………setae  49- In polychaetes ……………………. used in locomotion with many large number of ………………………setae  50-  50- Write five characters of polychaetes ? 59 Quiz

60  51-Prostomium  51- What do you mean when you say Prostomium and what the function ?  52-  52- Write short notes on habitat of polychaetes ?  53-  53- What are the components of nervous system in polychaetes and can you illustrate how the syrians of nervous is flow ?  54-  54- Draw the nervous system ?  55-…………..is located just below the prostomium, but in front of the modified segments – peristomium.  55- ………….. is located just below the prostomium, but in front of the modified segments – peristomium.  56-………….is surrounded by digestive glands  56- …………. is surrounded by digestive glands.  57- ………………is equipped with pincer-like jaws  58-………………… is straight, finally opens with anus in the anal segment  58- ………………… is straight, finally opens with anus in the anal segment  59-  59- In polychaetes can you illustrate the way which any particles tack it to arrange to anus ? ( with draw and the type of this particle )  60- Muscular pharynx exist in …………….. and can be everted through the …………………  60- Muscular pharynx exist in …………….. and can be everted through the ………………….  61-  61- Draw the circulatory system in polychaetes and illustrate each function of vessels ? 60 Quiz

61  62-Every segment contains a pair of………….except the peristomium and the anal segment  62- Every segment contains a pair of………….except the peristomium and the anal segment.  63-Each nephridium opens into the coelomic cavity by means of ………………..  63- Each nephridium opens into the coelomic cavity by means of ………………..  64-Each nephridium passes posteriorly through the ………. into the following segment. Where it forms ……………….  64- Each nephridium passes posteriorly through the ………. into the following segment. Where it forms ……………….  65-Reproduction tack place in ……………….  65- Reproduction tack place in ……………….  66-  66- Give notes about epitoky and the function of it ?  Can you give another example of polychaetes with it systems?  (search) 61 Quiz

62 What do you benefit in this lecture ? (write in short point and we will see it in the next lecture ) Prepare the next lecture please 62 Quiz


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