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A Scientist: I Am the Enemy by Ron Kline by Ron Kline.

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1 A Scientist: I Am the Enemy by Ron Kline by Ron Kline

2 Topics for Discussion Passage Learning Exercises

3 The use of animals for medical research is a highly emotional topic for many people. Animal-rights activistsactivists condemn research on animals, claimingcondemn that many medical experiments are not only inhumane but actually unnecessary. Alternatives to animal experimentationAlternatives exist, they argue, if only medicalif only researchers were willing to make use of them. A physician and medical researcher,A physician and medical researcher exciting

4 Ron Kline addresses the claims of theaddress activists and, in the process, makes some compelling claims of his own. I am the enemy! One of those vilified, inhumane physician-scientists involved in animal research. How strange, for I have never thought of myself as an evil person. I became a pediatrician because of my love for children and my desire to keep them healthy. During medical school and I am the enemy! physician pediatrician forceful &convincing at the same time

5 residency, however, I saw many children die of leukemia, prematurity and traumatic injury — circumstances circumstances against which medicine has made tremendous progress, but still has far to go. far to go. More important, I also saw children, alive and healthy, thanks to advances in medical science such as infant respirators, powerful antibiotics, new surgical techniques and the entire field of organ transplantation.thanks to 实习期 白血病 早产 外伤 呼吸器 抗生素 器官移植

6 My desire to tip the scales in favor of the healthy, happy children drew me to medical research. My desire to tip the scales in favor of the healthy, happy children drew me to medical research. My accusers claim that I impose torture on animals for the sole purpose of career advancement. My experiments supposedly have no relevance to medicine and are easily replaced by computer simulation. Meanwhile, an indifferent public purpose Who? the only one have no particular interest or concern for, apathetic

7 barely watches, convinced that the issue has no significance, and publicity-conscious politicians increasingly give way to the demands of the activists. publicity-conscious politicians increasingly give way to the demands of the activists. We in medical research have also been inexcusably indifferent. We have allowed the most extreme animal-rights protesters to seize the initiative and frame the issue as one of "animal deception." We have beenextremeseize the initiative just/only unpardonable apathetic ?

8 complacent in our belief that a knowledgeable public would sense the importance of animal research to the public health. Perhaps we have been mistaken in not responding to the emotional tone of the argument created by those sad posters of animals by waving equally sad posters of children dying of leukemia or cystic fibrosis.Perhaps we have been mistaken in not responding to the emotional tone of the argument created by those sad posters of animals by waving equally sad posters of children dying of leukemia or cystic fibrosis. self-satisfied/pleased

9 Much is made of the pain imposed on these animals in theMuch is made of the pain imposed on these animals in the name of medical science. name of medical science. The animal rights activists maintain that this is evidence of our malevolent and sadistic nature. A more reasonable argument, however, can be advanced in our defense. Life is often cruel, both to animals and human beings. Teenagers get thrown from the back of a pickup truck and suffer severe in our defense put forward/propose

10 head injuries. Toddlers, barely able to walk, find themselves at the bottom of a swimming pool while a parent checks the mail. Physicians hoping to relieve the pain and suffering these tragedies cause have but three choices: create an animal model of the injury or disease and use that model to understand the process and test new therapies; experiment on human beings some experiments willPhysicians hoping to relieve the pain and suffering these tragedies cause have but three choices: Refer to P103, A Must for Learners

11 succeed, most will fail or finally, leave medical knowledge static, hoping that accidental discoveries will lead us to the advances. leave medical knowledge static, hoping that accidental discoveries will lead us to the advances. Some animal-rights activists would suggest a fourth choice, claiming that computer models can simulate animal experiments, thus making the actual experiments unnecessary. Computers can simulate,

12 reasonably well, the effects of well- understood principles on complicated systems, as in the application of the laws of physics to airplane and automobile design. However, when the principles themselves are in question, as is the case with the complicated biological systems underas is the case with study, computer modeling alone is of little value.of little value under debate/being challenged

13 One of the terrifying effects of the effort to restrict the use of One of the terrifying effects of the effort to restrict the use of animals in medical research is that the impact will not be felt for years and decades: drugs that might have been discovered will not be; surgical techniques that might have been developed will not be; and fundamental biological processes that might have been understood will remain mysteries. There is the animals in medical research is that the impact will not be felt for years and decades: drugs that might have been discovered will not be; surgical techniques that might have been developed will not be; and fundamental biological processes that might have been understood will remain mysteries. There is theimpact Parallelism & omission discovered developed

14 danger that politically expedient solutions will be found to placate a vocal minority, while the consequences of those decisions will not be apparent until long after the decisions are made and the decision- makers forgotten. danger that politically expedient solutions will be found to placate a vocal minority, while the consequences of those decisions will not be apparent until long after the decisions are made and the decision- makers forgotten. Fortunately, most of us enjoy good health, and the trauma of Fortunately, most of us enjoy good health, and the trauma of watching one's child die has become watching one's child die has become Serve the purpose for the moment but may be morally wrong 权宜之计 pacify 平息,安抚 Who? are What?

15 a rare experience. Yet our good a rare experience. Yet our goodYet our goodYet our good fortune should not make us unappreciative of the health we enjoy or the advances that make it possible. fortune should not make us unappreciative of the health we enjoy or the advances that make it possible. Vaccines, antibiotics, insulin and drugs to treat heart disease, hypertension and stroke are all based on animal research. Most complex surgical procedures, such as coronary-artery bypass and organ transplantation, are initially developed fortune should not make us unappreciative of the health we enjoy or the advances that make it possible. Vaccines, antibiotics, insulin and drugs to treat heart disease, hypertension and stroke are all based on animal research. Most complex surgical procedures, such as coronary-artery bypass and organ transplantation, are initially developed fortune should not make us unappreciative of the health we enjoy or the advances that make it possible. 疫苗 胰岛素 冠状动脉分流术 first

16 in animals. Presently undergoing animal studies are techniques to insert genes in humans in order to replace the defective ones found to be the cause of so much disease. These studies will effectively end if animal research is severely restricted. in animals. Presently undergoing animal studies are techniques to insert genes in humans in order to replace the defective ones found to be the cause of so much disease. These studies will effectively end if animal research is severely restricted.undergo In America today, death has become an event isolated from our daily existence out of the sight and thoughts of most of us. As a doctor In America today, death has become an event isolated from our daily existence out of the sight and thoughts of most of us. As a doctorout of the sight and thoughts of most of usout of the sight and thoughts of most of us certainly, actually

17 who has watched many children die, and their parents grieve, I am particularly angered by people capable of so much compassion for a dog or a cat, but with seemingly so little for a dying human being. These people seem so isolated from the reality of human life and death and what it means. who has watched many children die, and their parents grieve, I am particularly angered by people capable of so much compassion for a dog or a cat, but with seemingly so little for a dying human being. These people seem so isolated from the reality of human life and death and what it means.These people seem so isolated from the reality of human life and death and what it means.These people seem so isolated from the reality of human life and death and what it means. Make no mistake, however: I am not advocating the needlessly cruel Make no mistake, however: I am not advocating the needlessly cruel

18 treatment of animals. To the extent that the animal-rights movement has made us more aware of the needs of these animals and made us search harder for suitable alternatives, they have made a significant contribution. But if the more radical members of this movement are successful in limiting further research, their efforts treatment of animals. To the extent that the animal-rights movement has made us more aware of the needs of these animals and made us search harder for suitable alternatives, they have made a significant contribution. But if the more radical members of this movement are successful in limiting further research, their efforts will bring about a tragedy that will cost many lives. The real question is will bring about a tragedy that will cost many lives. The real question isThe real question isThe real question is

19 whether an indifferent majority can be aroused to protect its future against a vocal, but misdirected, minority. whether an indifferent majority can be aroused to protect its future against a vocal, but misdirected, minority.whether an indifferent majority can be aroused to protect its future against a vocal, but misdirected, minority.whether an indifferent majority can be aroused to protect its future against a vocal, but misdirected, minority.

20 1. Have you ever heard about medical research on animals or animal rights movement?

21 2. What animal is most often used in animal experiments?

22 3. Do you think it is really necessary to conduct experiments on animals? Why or why not? If you type the key words “animal experiments” into a search engine on the Internet, you will find in the tens of thousands of searching results,

23 most of words used to modify “animal experiments” are: Sadistic, brutal, cruel, shame, disaster, etc., which indicates that quite a few people take an opposing position against this issue, but what stand does the writer take in the text? How does he uphold his stand?

24 activist: n. A proponent or practitioner of activism: 激进主义分子,行动主义分子 political activists. 政治激进分子 adj. Of, relating to, or engaged in activism, or being an activist. 激进主义的, 有关激进主义分子的

25 The debate over animal experiments is deadly serious. In Britain, we've seen bombings, hunger strikes and death threats. The scientists involved, labeled "torturers", live in fear of becoming the next target. Peaceful campaigners for animal rights find themselves branded as "terrorist sympathizers". The debate over animal experiments is deadly serious. In Britain, we've seen bombings, hunger strikes and death threats. The scientists involved, labeled "torturers", live in fear of becoming the next target. Peaceful campaigners for animal rights find themselves branded as "terrorist sympathizers".

26 condemn: vt. ⑴ To express strong disapproval of: 谴责:表达强烈的反对意见: e.g. All the world would ~ the country for selling the nuclear weapon. ⑵ To pronounce judgment against; to sentence: 宣判:对 … 作出判决;宣判

27 e.g. The prisoner was ~ed to life imprisonment. Word formation: condemn=con+demn(damn) 谴责, 指责;诅咒 con- (also col-, com-, cor-) with, together e.g. conduct, collaborate, combine, correlate, etc.

28 alternative n. The choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities. 两者择一,抉择:对两个互相排斥 的可能情况的选择 e.g. There was no other alternative but to fight till the victory. 除了战斗直到胜利, 别无选择。

29 Compare choice , alternative , preference , selection , election 这些名词中都表示选择的行为、 这些名词中都表示选择的行为、能力或权力。 Choice 广泛地指从一组人或物中进行 选择的自由: The store offers a wide choice of fruits and vegetables. 商店提供许多可供选择的水果和蔬菜。

30 I had no choice—their decision was final. 我没有选择的余地 —— 他们的决定已 成定局。 Alternative 强调在只有两种可能性或 者行为方式之间所作的选择: “An unhappy alternative is before you, Elizabeth.... Your mother will never see you again if you do not marry Mr. Collins, and I will never see you again if you do ” (Jane Austen).

31 Preference 指基于个人价值观、偏 见或偏好上的选择: We were offered our preference of wines.我们可以选择自己喜欢的葡萄酒。 Selection 含有可供选择的许多不同 的人或物的意思: Parents should exercise care in their selection of the movies their young children see. 家长们在为他们年幼的 孩子们挑选所看的电影时应小心谨慎。

32 Election 特别强调选择时使用判断力: The university recommends the The university recommends the election of courses in composition and literature. 校方建议选择有关写作与文学的课程。 校方建议选择有关写作与文学的课程。

33 If only... Subjunctive mood Translation practice: 如果我四级考试再多考一分就好了! 如果老板能给我配一个笔记本电脑 该有多好呀!

34 A physician and medical researcher 冠词的用法 : 表 and 连接的两个词只有一个冠词, 表示的是同一个概念,同一人,同一 事的时候,谓语动词用单数,如 : The head master and mathematical teacher is coming. The head master and mathematical teacher is coming. The head master and the mathematical teacher are coming.

35 Q: This text is an Argumentation, or rather, a Refutation. ( 驳论 ) Read the introduction carefully and find the claim (the thesis) of the text.

36 claim: scientists should or should not be allowed to experiment on animals. the writer proponent the animal activists opponent

37 Animal activists ’ claims: 1. Animal experimentation is __________. 2. Animal experimentation is __________. inhumane unnecessary How do they support their claims? How does the writer attack their claims? Let’s go!

38 address vt./n. 1. to speak to ~ed me in low tones ~ed me in low tones 2. to make a formal speech to The football captain ~ed his team. The football captain ~ed his team. 3. to direct (a spoken or written message) to the attention of: 提出:提交(口头或书面的报告) 以引起 … 的注意:

39 ~ a protest to the committee 向委员会提交抗议书 ~ claims 4. to mark with a destination: 写地址:标注目的地 address a letter.

40 “ I am the enemy! ” (irony) It means the opposite of what it appears to say. In fact, the writer raises his strong voice: I am NOT the enemy!

41 doctor 医生, 大夫, 尤其用于内科医生、牙医或 兽医physician内科医生surgeon外科医生pediatrician儿科医生 medicine 内科学 surgery 外科学, 外科手术 pediatrics 小儿科

42 “…circumstances against which medicine has made tremendous progress, but still has far to go.” Medicine has made tremendous progress against (those) circumstances, but (medicine) still has far to go. as a defense/protection against:

43 progress/succeed progress/succeedExpression: how far have you got? [+with] So far so good. sb. will/should go far: be successful in the future e.g. How far did you get with the cleaning? She is an excellent musician and should go far. far:

44 thanks to: as the result of, owing to Thanks to your help, we were successful. Antonym: small thanks to (used ironically) We were successful, but small thanks to you.

45 My desire to tip the scales in favor of the healthy, happy children drew me to medical research. This sentence is a repetition of the 4th sentence. (L3) Paraphrase: My desire to keep children healthy and happy attracted me to medical research.

46 tip the scales/balance: to give a slight advantage to sb. or sth. (喻)使形势朝 … 方向发展 Your support tipped the balance in our favor. in favor of sb/ in sb ’ s favor 1. to the advantage of 1. to the advantage of A university diploma is in your favor while applying for a job.

47 2. In support of; approving We are in favor of her promotion to president. Expressions: do sb a ~ ask a ~ of sb owe sb a ~ return a ~ (fall) out of favor

48 Main idea of P1 Animal-rights activists should not condemn me (the author) as if I were the enemy because I involve myself in medical research on animals for the purpose of keeping children healthy and happy.

49 Q: The first 2 sentences of P2 are used to explain which of the following: animal experiments are animal experiments areinhumane Animal experiments are unnecessary

50 Q: Which word in the first 2 sentences of P2 shows that my accusers are not sure about their claim? supposedly uncertainty of their claim their claim

51 Expressions of Purpose: serve a purpose The discussion serves a twin ~ — instruction and feedback. on purpose Jack ’ s been really annoying me and I think he ’ s doing it on ~.

52 to good purpose/to no purpose: with good results or with no results She has used her musical talents to good ~.

53 Main idea of P2-3 The reasons why animal-rights activists are having their way.

54 … publicity-conscious politicians increasingly give way to the demands of the activists. publicity-conscious: thinking a lot about public image of one’s own e.g. safety-conscious/fashion-~/self-~ recipes for calorie-conscious slimmers

55 give way 1. to break because of too much weight or pressure: The bridge eventually gave way. 2. to be replaced by: [+to] Steam trains finally gave way to electricity. 3. to yield to: Alison is too stubborn to ~.

56 Paraphrase: Politicians who are only concerned about their public images are yielding to the demands of the activists more and more.

57 extreme adj. 1. Being in or attaining the greatest or highest degree; very intense ~ pleasure/ ~ pain. ~ pleasure/ ~ pain. 2. Extending far beyond the norm ~ opinions ~ opinions 3. Of the greatest severity; drastic ~ penalty ~ penalty

58 n. n. The greatest or utmost degree or point. Love and hate are two ~s.

59 Expressions: seize/hold/lose the initiative 掌握(失去)主动权;占(不占)优势 The allied troops were quick to seize the ~ and launched a massive counterattack. take the initiative 率先;采取主动 They took the initiative in trying to solve the problem.

60 on one ’ s own initiative 自主的;主动地 Lieutenant Carlos was not obeying orders. He acted on his own ~.

61 Compare the following words: initiate vt . initiate vt . initial adj. / n. initial adj. / n. initiative n. initiative n. initiation n. initiation n. Fill in the blank in each item.

62 1.The two countries took the ___ step toward reconciliation (和解). 2. Why don ’ t you take the ______ and arrange a meeting? 3. That superpower ______ trade with developing nations. 4. The _______ ceremony involves a good show of Chinese shadowboxing. initial initiative initiated initiation

63 Q: How to explain the word “frame” here? Is it a derogatory (贬义) or commendatory (褒义) word? frame: To make up evidence or contrive events so as to incriminate (a person) falsely. He was framed by the real criminals and became the victim of the evil and injustice. Let’s go!

64 Paraphrase this sentence: Maybe we should fight against the activists by adopting their emotional techniques and putting up posters of dying children who would benefit from animal research.

65 In P2-3, the author revealed several kinds of people and their attitudes towards the issue, list them.

66 the most extreme/emotional indifferent Increasingly giving way/yielding inexcusably indifferent animal-rights protesters public politicians other medical researchers

67 Much on these animals in the name of medical science is made. of the pain imposed make (too) much of: to treat sth. as very important e.g. The press made too much of what was only meant as a joke. Tr. 不要夸大这个讲座。

68 in sb ’ s/sth ’ s defence: sth you say or do in order to protect someone or sth from criticism Speaking in ~ of the proposal, he pointed out how much cheaper it would be.

69 Analyze the structure of the sentence. Physicians hoping to relieve the pain and suffering these tragedies cause have [but] three choices … subject predicate object attributive

70 … leave medical knowledge static, hoping that accidental discoveries will lead us to the advances. Paraphrase: … stop seeking medical knowledge, hoping that we ’ ll make discoveries by accident.

71 Q: Among the four choices suggested in P4-5, which one is the only practical? Why? (Open)

72 as is the case with: 正如,就是这种 情况 e.g. Both of us are old, you can ’ t expect to score a hat-trick again, as is the case with me.

73 Main idea of P4-5 Medical research on animals is the only possible way to make important discoveries in medical science.

74 of little value: almost not valuable His advice is of little value to our plan. Other expressions: of little importance, of some service/use, of great importance, of some historical significance, of much/some, no account, etc.

75 impact: n. Strong impression or effect 影响; Forceful contact 冲击,碰撞 give an ~ to 对 … 撞击 Have/make an ~ on 对 … 有影响 When the car hit the lamppost, the ~ broke the windscreen.

76 Main Idea P6: Limiting medical research on animals will have severe effectss whose impact will not be felt for years. P7: If animal research is severely restricted, studies based on animal experimentation will surely end.

77 Yet our good fortune should not make us unappreciative of the health we enjoy or the advances that make it possible. Paraphrase: However, our good luck should not make us ungrateful for the good health we enjoy or the advances that allow us to live happily. “it” here refers to “the (good) health (we enjoy).”

78 undergo vt. [not in passive] Experience; pass through 经历;遭受 The company underwent several major changes. The patient underwent much suffering. The new product must undergo its tests before it is for sale.

79 … out of the sight and thoughts of most of us: … beyond the range of visions and thoughts of the majority of us

80 Q: What conclusion does the author arrive at about the claims of the activists? The activists care more about a dog or a cat than about a dying human being.

81 Main Idea P8: Animal-rights activists seem to live outside human reality and do not understand what human life and death means. P9: If an indifferent public cannot be stimulated to fight the activists, the latter ’ s effort will severely affect the future of the human race.

82 These people seem so isolated from the reality of human life and death and what it means. Paraphrase: these people seem to be kept apart from the reality of human life and death and the meaning of life and death.

83 The real question is whether an indifferent majority can be aroused to protect its future against a vocal, but misdirected, minority. An indifferent majority: the public who pay no attention to medical research or animals A vocal, but misdirected minority: the more radical members of animal rights movement

84 Q: What is the tone of this paragraph? Objective, rational. Objective, rational.

85 I. Summarize the claims of the author and write an outline of the Part A. II. Word Formation Word FormationWord Formation III. Reading Comprehension Reading ComprehensionReading Comprehension

86 Give nouns of the following and sum up the rules in them: 1. entertain assort fail press fail press refuse deny refuse deny accept allow accept allow depend confident depend confident pack marry pack marry 2. social racial true warm true warm

87 loyal cruel loyal cruel real active real active 3. bore official friend leader friend leader child adult child adult mouth hand mouth hand cigar kitchen cigar kitchen book pig book pig

88 Key v.+suffix → n. v.+suffix → n. -ment entertainment assortment -ure failure pressure -al refusal denial -ance acceptance allowance -ence dependence confidence -age package marriage

89 a.+suffix → n. a.+suffix → n. -ism socialism racialism/racism -th truth warmth -ty loyalty cruelty -ity reality activity

90 n.+suffix → n. n.+suffix → n. -dom boredom officialdom -ship friendship leadership -hood childhood adulthood -ful mouthful handful -ette cigarette kitchenette -let booklet piglet

91 汉译英 英明的判断 政府机构 快乐原则 混合比例 正式批准 到达时间 经济资助 自力更生 文化差异 参考书 英雄主义行为 反恐怖主义 缺水 收缩极限 免税 想象的领域 健康保险

92 Key wise judgment wise judgment government agency government agency pleasure principle pleasure principle mixture ratio mixture ratio granting approval granting approval arrival time arrival time financial assistance financial assistance self-reliance self-reliance culture difference culture difference reference book reference book an act of heroism an act of heroism antiterrorism antiterrorism a shortage of water a shortage of water shrinkage limit shrinkage limit freedom from taxation freedom from taxation the kingdom of the imagination. the kingdom of the imagination. health insurance health insurance

93 1. Animal-rights activists maintain that ____. A) the use of animals for medical research has no significance B) animal experiments are cruel and unnecessary as well C) Medicine has made tremendous progress without animal research D) Publicity-conscious politicians should give way to their demand Questions 1-5 are based on the passage in Part A

94 2. Medical researchers remain indifferent to animal-right protesters because _____. A) they impose torture on animals in the name of medical science B) they were not enthusiastic about the argument C) they feel complacent about the sense of the public D) they consider the claims of animal- rights activists reasonable

95 3. In the author ’ s opinion, computer modeling is of little value ____. A) when the complicated biological systems have not been explored B) in the application of the laws of physics to airplane and automobile design C) while simulating the effects of well- understood principles on complicated systems D) in the simulation of actual animal experiments

96 4. As a result of restricting animal research, ____. A) fundamental biological process will remain mysteries for years B) drugs will be discovered only in the next decade C) surgical techniques might have been developed D) the decision-makers will be forgotten before long

97 5. If animal-right movement continues to be more radical ____. A) their efforts will make medical researchers search for suitable alternatives B) the activists will make a significant contribution to the future C) an indifferent public will be aroused to support medical research D) it will cause an unnecessary loss of many human lives

98 6. The author has a fear of bargaining simply because ____. A) he considers it is unnecessary to beat a price down B) he probably has a mental disorder C) he wants others to think highly of him D) he likes to pay whatever someone asks him Questions 6-10 are based on the passage in Part B I

99 7. The author didn ’ t go shopping with Sheldon any longer for ___. A) Sheldon was not so good at bargaining as the author B) Sheldon didn ’ t know much about goods C) they became bad friends since then D) he couldn ’ t buy that framed painting at a lower price

100 8. The author bought a rug for his living room for ___ at last. A) $1,500 B) $1,100 C) $950 D) $750

101 9. The Armenian rug dealer kept bargaining in order to ___. A) get more pleasure out of it. B) sell his rug at a higher price C) make friends with his customers D) be the object of ridicule of the rug industry

102 10. The price named by the articles editor of Family Circle was ____. A) not accepted by the author B) refused by the author ’ s wife C) bargained by the author D) less than $500

103 11. Seth stayed long after his theft since ___. A) he felt uncertain whether he should commit the matter to the grocer B) he was not known for concealing a pound of butter in his hat C) he wanted to satisfy his own appetite for fun D) he was attracted by the hot drink offered by the grocer Questions are based on the passage in Part B II

104 12. Seth was planted in a seat close the stove where ____. A) he was surrounded by boxes and barrels and the grocer B) he could have a glass filled with a streaming hot drink C) he was able to reach another pound of butter D) he stuffed in as many sticks of wood as he could

105 13. The butter concealed in the thief ’ s hat ____. A) Tore Seth away from the hot drink and stove B) Made Seth ’ s hair stand on end and well oiled C) Was beginning to melt as Seth was pushed back into his seat D) Settled down to Seth ’ s chair and made him embarrassed

106 14. As Seth lingered on in his seat, the waterfall of the melting butter ____. A) made Seth feel warm and sweat B) poured down and soaked him from head to toe C) sealed up Seth ’ s eyes and mouth D) kept Seth sit upright with his back against the counter

107 15. The grocer ___ when the latter darted out the store at last. A) found the victim was unhappy about his theft B) told Seth that his theft was discovered before long C) asked Seth to compensate for the loss of the store D) satisfied his own appetite for fun to the utmost extent

108 16. The main purpose of the author in paragraphs 2 and 3 is ___. A) to describe the different pyramids for women in employment in China and in America B) to show the different attitudes of the Chinese and American women towards their jobs C) to tell the difference between the Chinese and American women in childcare D) to give reasons for the necessity of the second income Questions are based on the passage in Part B III

109 17. Grandmothers in America ____. A) serve an invaluable function in taking care of their grandchildren B) are proud of being housed and fed in their adult-children ’ s families C) tend to feel they deserve to enjoy their old age without childcare D) enjoy their jobs and don not want to retire from their work

110 18. On the job Chinese women seem ___. A) less self-conscious and nervous with their superiors B) more inclined to speak up to the boss C) more bold to look for evidence of discrimination against them D) less sure of themselves than American women do in their workplaces

111 19. One major difference between the Chinese and the American work situation is that ____. A) American men are given more preference in job selection and promotion B) Chinese couples can separate from each other for work to earn more money C) Chinese like the jobs that keep husbands and wives separated for a few months. D) Americans cannot dream of husbands and wives being separated for long due to occupation

112 20. An American woman is more concerned than a Chinese woman about ___. A) Having a great deal of companionship in her work unit B) Presenting an attractive appearance to help her career progress C) Shouldering the heavy burden of household duties D) Making an attractive home to exhibit her own social status

113 Key: 1-5 B C A A D 6-10 C B C A D D A C B D A C B D B


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