5Complete cornell notes for the Meiosis video What is the purpose of Meiosis and Mitosis?p
6Complete the lab “Why don’t we look like our siblings”
7Inheritance Gregor Mendel – “Father of Genetics” Traits Alleles Did experiments with pea plants in mid-late 1800’s to show basic patterns of inheritanceSeed Shape (round or wrinkled)Seed Color (yellow or green)Seed Coat color (gray or white)Pod Shape (smooth or constricted)Pod Color (green or yellow)Flower Position (axial or terminal)Plant Height (tall or short)TraitsAllelesDominant AllelesRecessive AllelesFound that when two plants with different alleles are crossed, the offspring look like one of the parents, rather than a blending of both parents.Principle of DominanceSome alleles are dominant and others are recessive
8Summary of Mendel’s Principles Phenotype song Gregor Mendel’s work forms the basis of modern genetics:Genes are passed from parent to offspringSome forms of genes (alleles) are dominant while others are recessiveGenes randomly segregate (independent assortment) when gametes are formedThe alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of one anotherLinked genes (genes that occur very close to one another on a chromosome) are the exceptionWrite these 4 ideas from Mendelp
9Inheritance: the passing of traits from parents to offspring Gregor Mendel – “Father of Genetics”Phenotype - The observable physical characteristic of a traitGenotype - The genetic combination of alleles for a traitPunnett Square – tool used to predict probability of phenotypePhenotype: WhiteGenotype: ppPhenotype: PurpleGenotype: PPNotice that letters are used to represent the alleles (usually correspond to the dominant phenotype – e.g. “P” for purple)Upper Case Letters = Dominant AlleleLower Case Letters = Recessive Allele
10Practice Overview of genes to traits video Copy the 3 questions below: What do they mean when they say “you have your father’s hair”?How many chromosomes do organisms have?How much DNA do we have in common with other animals?
16Just Like Me Hand cross Right thumb on top (A) Hand cross Left thumb on top (a)
17Just Like Me“Bent” Little fingers (B)Parallel little fingers (b)
18Just Like MeTongue roller (T)Non-tongue roller (t)
19Just Like MeHair on fingers (H)No hair on fingers (h)
20Just Like MeAttached ear lobe (e)Free ear lobe (unattached) (E)
21Just Like MeCleft (dimpled) chin (C)No cleft chin (c)
22Just Like Me PREDICTION For each trait, make a prediction about what percentage of your classmates are “like you” for each trait.
23Just Like Me p results finish Go to your teachers website Click on the phenotype survey linkFill in your resultsUse the “form” button on the top menu bar to show the class resultsFill in the chart on your paperMake a bar graph of the resultsAnswer all the questions
24Inheritance Gregor Mendel – “Father of Genetics” Found that alleles show up in predictable patterns and that some alleles show up more often than othersHomozygous (Pure-Breeds) - both alleles are the sameHeterozygous (Hybrids) - both alleles are differentCarriers – heterozygotes for a recessive traitPure-Breed Crosses result in: 100% chance dominant phenotypeHybrid Crosses result in: 75% chance dominant phenotype25% chance recessive phenotype
25Inheritance Gregor Mendel – “Father of Genetics” Found that alleles show up in predictable patterns and that some alleles show up more often than othersAlleles can be tracked through multiple generations and probabilities determinedParents: P1 generationFirst Generation: First Filial (F1) 100% chance dominant phenotypeSecond Generation: Second Filial (F2) 75% chance dominant phenotypeThird Generation: Third Filial (F3) 63% chance dominant phenotype100% chance75% chance75% chance0% chance
26Practice Dominant vs Recessive genes video Video on making punnett squaresComplete the Probability (Long vs Short Big Toe) Lab.
27Solving Punnett Squares : If a round pea plant (AA) is crossed with a wrinkled pea plant (aa), what percent of the offspring will be:Round?Wrinkled?If two heterozygous round pea plants are crossed, what percent of the offspring will be:Round?Wrinkled?If a heterozygous round pea plant is crossed with a homozygous wrinkled pea plant, what percent of the offspring will be:Round?Wrinkled?
30Complete dominancep86pWhich of the following are genotypes and which are phenotypes:Brown hair Homozygous recessiveBb Webbed FingersHybrid Down Syndrome2. If two individuals mate and their child has a phenotype completely different from both parents, what was the genotype of the parents?
31Phenotypic Expression Varies Complete DominanceCodominanceHomozygous genotype one phenotypeHeterozygous genotype both phenotypesIncomplete DominanceSex-LinkedPolygenic Traits
32CodominancepIf two alleles are codominant and two heterozygous (spotted RW) flowers mate, what percentage of the offspring will have white flowers (WW) and what percentage will have red flowers (RR)?
35p Blood type of parents All possible genotypes of parent All possible genotypes of childrenAll possible blood types of childrenBlood types not possible for childrenA and OB and OA and BAB and AAB and BAB and OO and O
36Phenotypic Expression Varies Complete DominanceCodominanceIncomplete DominanceHomozygous genotype one phenotypeHeterozygous genotype new phenotypeSex-LinkedPolygenic Traits
37Complete Dominance Codominance Incomplete Dominance Sex-Linked X-linked: gene lies on X chromosome (males only have one copy of the gene)Y-linked: gene lies on Y chromosome (only males have the gene)Contributes to younger mortality rate in malesPolygenic Traits
38Practice Pipe Cleaner babies and genetic traits”. X-linked Inheritance worksheetp
41Solving Punnett Squares Predicting phenotype gets more complicated when you look at more than one trait at a timeParentsDepending on how the chromosomes independently assort determines the genotype, and thus phenotype, of the resulting progeny (offspring)Offspring
42PracticepDihybrid Crosses handout (bunny rabbits). And Sponge Bob II
43Solving Punnett Squares: If a round, yellow pea plant (AABB) is crossed with a wrinkled, green pea plant (aabb), what percent of the offspring will be:Round and yellow?Round and green?Wrinkled and yellow?Wrinkled and green?What about the F2 generation?p
44Pedigree Rules What is a pedigree? *A pedigree is a chart that shows all family members and how they are related. It follows certain rules and shows genotypes and phenotypes.
45Boys Shaded- Phenotype being “traced” Girls X deceasedMarriage same level=same generationMating w/o marriage Carrier (heterozygous)Kids AdoptedTwins
46Draw a pedigree for your immediate family (mom, dad, step parents, siblings, etc)
48PedigreesGraphically shows the lineage of a disorder in a particular familyBe able to tell if disorder is dominant, recessive, or sex-linked from a pedigreeBe able to predict the chance that an indicated couple will have a child with the disorderAutosomal Dominant PedigreeHow can we tell?
49PedigreesGraphically shows the lineage of a disorder in a particular familyBe able to tell if disorder is dominant, recessive, or sex-linked from a pedigreeBe able to predict the chance that an indicated couple will have a child with the disorderAutosomal Recessive PedigreeHow can we tell?
50Is the X-linked dominant or recessive? PedigreesSex-Linked PedigreesHow can we tell?Graphically shows the lineage of a disorder in a particular familyBe able to tell if disorder is dominant, recessive, or sex-linked from a pedigreeBe able to predict the chance that an indicated couple will have a child with the disorderIs the X-linked dominant or recessive?
51Pedigree Analysis Case Study Read family informationPut family name at the top of your whiteboardMake a pedigree for the entire familyPlace name of condition under family nameLabel names of all family members that you knowMake a key for the possible genotypes and phenotypes of your trait. Label as many individual genotypes on the pedigree that you can.Shade in the people that have the traitIdentify the Patterns in the Pedigree and write the answers on your whiteboard:Does the trait:show up in every generation?Or, does the trait skip a generation?Is the trait dominant or recessive?Gender:Does the trait affect males/females equally?Or, Does the trait only affect males? Or, only females?Does your trait fit one of the patterns we have learned so far (complete dominance, codominance, incomplete dominance, or X-linked)? If so, which one? How do you know?p
55Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectStep 1: Fill in Table of Alleles for your paper bag pet that reflect its genotype for each trait . Note that Tail and Eyelashes are X-Linked!TraitSymbols for Each AllelePhenotypeGenotypeSexXX or XYNose ShapeCircle (N), Triangle (n)Eye ShapeSlit (E), Oval (e)Ear ShapeRound (R), Pointed (r)Hair ColorBlack (H), Brown (h), yellow (y)Eye ColorBrown (B), Blue (b), green (g), yellow (y)EyelashesEyelashes (L), No Eyelashes (l) X- linked!TailTail (T), No Tail (t) On Y chromosome- only males can have a tail!
57Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectStep 2: Decorate a “pet” paper bag with traits that adhere to this given set of phenotype choices: Cut off the bottom 1” from the paper bag. Use this strip to make arms and other body parts.Gender male or female?Tail tail or no tail? (females cannot have tails)Eye Shape round or oval (almond) shaped?Eye Color brown, blue, green, yellow?Eyelashes has eyelashes or is lashless?Nose Shape circular or triangular?Hair Color black, brown, or yellow?Ear Shape round or pointed?
58Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectStep 3: Create chromosomes for your paper bag pet that reflect its genotype for each traitFor Females
59Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectCreate chromosomes for your paper bag pet that reflect its genotype for each traitFor Males
60Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectStep 4: Create gametes for your pet paper bagStep 1: DNA replicationFor MalesFor Females
61Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectCreate gametes for your pet paper bagStep 2:Crossing OverRandom assortmentCrossing OverStep 3: Random AssortmentStep 4: First cell division
62Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectCreate gametes for your pet paper bagStep 5: Second cell division
63STEP 5:Carefully cut out the parent chromosomes and glue them onto the back side of your parent bag (these are the DARK chromosomes).Also cut and glue the parent table of alleles to the bag.
64Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectStep 6: Find a mate and procreate!Trade one autosome and one sex chromosome with someone else. These are your child’s chromosomes. Glue them onto the back of a new bag.
65Step 9: Fill out a birth certificate for your child. Step 7: Fill out a table of alleles for your child from the child’s chromosomes.Glue the table onto your new paper bag next to the chromosomes.Step 8: decorateyour child.Step 9: Fill out a birth certificate for your child.MomChild
66Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project
67Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectStep 10: Fill out the Punnett Square Worksheet
68Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectFill out the Punnett Square Worksheet
69Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectFill out the Punnett Square Worksheet
72Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectFill in Table of Alleles and create chromosomes for your paper bag pet that reflect its genotype for each traitDecorate a “pet” paper bag with traits that adhere to a given set of phenotype choicesCreate gametes for your pet paper bagFind a mate and procreateFill out the Punnett square worksheet to predict the traits of your offspringGive birth: decorate your baby bag with phenotypes that match its genotypes and fill out the birth certificate
73Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics Project Making Genetics Easy and Fun!Paper Bag Pets: A Genetics ProjectMethod 1: Culminating ProjectDay 1 Decorate a “pet” paper bag with traits that adhere to a given set of phenotype choicesDay 2 Create chromosomes for your paper bag pet that reflect its genotype for each trait (use rest of period to introduce or reinforce meiosis)Day 3 Create gametes for your pet paper bagDay 3 Find a mate and procreateDay 4 Fill out the Punnett square worksheet to predict the traits of your offspring (first introduce or reinforce Mendelian genetics)Day 5 Give birth: decorate your baby bag with phenotypes that match its genotypes and fill out the birth certificate
74Animations Mitosis vs Meiosis Nova Videos Tay Sachs (one wrong letter) Nova VideosCracking the Code of Life:Miracle of Life:Tay Sachs (one wrong letter)
75Practice ProblemsHow do mutations during meiosis affect an organism differently than mutations during mitosis?At each step of meiosis, is the cell haploid or diploid?Which of the following are genotypes and which are phenotypes:Brown hair HybridBb Webbed FingersHomozygous recessive Down SyndromeIf an allele is dominant and two heterozygous individuals mate, what is the chance that their child will have the dominant phenotype?If two alleles are codominant and two heterozygous individuals mate, what is the chance that their child will have both phenotypes?If two individuals mate and their child has a phenotype completely different from both parents, what was the genotype of the parents?If a disorder is X-linked and a normal man mates with a woman who is a carrier, what is the chance that they will have a boy with the disorder? What is the chance that they will have a girl with the disorder?
76Practice ProblemsIf a woman is homozygous recessive for both blonde hair and blue eyes and she mates with a man who is heterozygous for both brown hair and brown eyes, what is the chance that their child will have blonde hair and blue eyes?In real life, eye color and hair color are actually polygenic in humans. What does this mean?If a person with type A blood mates with a person with type AB blood, what is the chance that they will have a child with:type A blood?type B blood?type AB blood?If a person with type O blood mates with a person with type AB blood, what is the chance that they will have a child with:type O blood?
77Practice ProblemsIn the pedigree, which individuals are affected males? Affected females? Normal males? Normal females?Which type of inheritance is indicated by the pedigree below?Which individuals are homozygous recessive in the pedigree?Which individuals are homozygous dominant in the pedigree?Which individuals are heterozygous in the pedigree?If the top two individuals in the pedigree had another baby, what are the chances that he/she would have the disorder?
78Practice QuestionsWhich regulatory mechanisms occur at the DNA-level, which occur at the protein-level?How do acetylation, methylation, repressors, activators, and siRNA control gene expression? What role do inducers play?What is an enhancer and how does it help control how much of a particular protein is made?How do allosteric inhibition and competitive inhibition differ in the ways they accomplish feedback inhibition?What are the three phases of the cell cycle? What occurs at each phase?What are the four phases of mitosis? What occurs at each phase?What are cell cycle checkpoints? Why are they important?What is apoptosis? What role does it play in the cell cycle?What is the difference between chromatin and chromosomes?What is the role of the centromere? (What would happen without it?)
79Practice QuestionsWhat is the difference between a chromatid and a chromosome?What events must happen in order for two sister chromatids to separate from one another and move to opposite sides of the cell? (What happens at the centromere? What happens to the centromere? What is the role of the mitotic spindle?)What would happen if two sister chromatids moved to the same side of the cell?What happens to the mitotic spindle after mitosis?What are gametes? Where are they made in the body? How are they made?What are the eight phases of meiosis? What occurs during each phase? How does meiosis differ from mitosis?How do crossing over and random assortment “mix up” genes so that children are genetically different from their parents?Why are insertion and deletion mutations usually more harmful than substitution mutations?
80Practice QuestionsHow does nondisjunction affect the genes present in an organism? Specifically, why does it cause deformities?What “super powers” must a cell acquire to become cancerous? How does it acquire these powers?Compare and contrast oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. What are they? How are they similar? How are they different?Why is cancer primarily a disease of old age?How do mutations cause genetic variation? Is this good or bad for the organism?How do genetic diseases caused by point mutations differ from those caused by chromosomal mutations like nondisjunction?What causes spontaneous mutations? What causes induced mutations?How accurate is DNA replication? (That is, how often do point mutations occur?)What type of mutation is shown here? AGTGCCGTCAC TCACGGCCAGTG
81Practice Questions Why is DNA synthesis said to be “semiconservative”? What role do DNA polymerase, DNA primase (a type of RNA polymerase), helicase, topoisomerase, RNase H, and ligase play in DNA replication?What is the difference between how the leading strand and lagging strand are copied during DNA replication? Why do they have to be synthesized differently in this fashion?What would happen if insufficient RNase H were produced by a cell? What if insufficient ligase were produced by a cell?What are four key differences between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase? (“they are difference molecules” doesn’t count as one!)Compare and contrast codons and anticodons?What is alternative splicing? Why is it necessary in eukaryotes?During translation, what amino acid sequence would the following mRNA segment be converted into: AUGGACAUUGAACCG?How come there are only 20 amino acids when there are 64 different codons?How come prokaryotes can both transcribe and translate a gene at the same time, but eukaryotes cannot?
82Sources of Genetic Diversity During Interphase (DNA Replication)Mutations – create new allelesDuring MeiosisRandom Assortment (Independent Alignment) – mixes up chromosomes inherited from mother and fatherCrossing Over – mixes up genes that occur on the same chromosome(“Linked genes” occur adjacent or very close to one another on the same chromosome and so are almost always inherited together)During SexFertilization – mixes up genes from two different partners
83New Mutations (“De Novo”) Genetic DisordersInherited(from mom or dad or both)New Mutations (“De Novo”)(new point mutations or chromosomal)Complete DominanceIncomplete DominanceCodominanceSex-LinkedPolygenic TraitsmeiosisGametes(egg / sperm)Tay Sachs (one wrong letter)
84Variations in Heritability Qualitative Traitscontrolled by a single geneClearly have a defined phenotypeEx: attached ears or lobed earsControlled by multiple genes (polygenic)Influenced by the environmentShows a gradation of phenotypesEx: height
85Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Method used to copy DNAStrands are “melted” apart using heatPrimers and nucleotides (NTP’s) are added and the mix is gradually cooledResults in formation of complementary strandsCycle is repeated, doubling number of DNA strands each time
86Phenotypic Expression Varies Complete DominanceCodominanceIncomplete DominanceSex-LinkedPolygenic TraitsControlled by more than one geneMost common type of expression