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The following is a map of four genes on a chromosome: a) Between which two genes would you expect the lowest highest frequency of recombination?

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Presentation on theme: "The following is a map of four genes on a chromosome: a) Between which two genes would you expect the lowest highest frequency of recombination?"— Presentation transcript:



3 The following is a map of four genes on a chromosome: a) Between which two genes would you expect the lowest highest frequency of recombination?

4 3 Sex-linked Trait Problem Example: Eye color in fruit flies (red-eyed male) x (white-eyed female) X R Y x X r X r Remember: the Y chromosome in males does not carry traits. RR = red eyed Rr = red eyed rr = white eyed XY = male XX = female copyright cmassengale

5 4 Sex-linked Trait Solution: X R X r X r Y X R X r X r Y 50% red eyed female 50% white eyed male XRXR XrXr XrXr Y copyright cmassengale

6 5 Female Carriers copyright cmassengale

7 Pleiotrophy Example: Sickle cell. A mutation in a gene causes multiple symptoms

8 Epistasis In genetics, epistasis is the phenomenon where the effects of one gene are modified by one or several other genes, which are sometimes called modifier genes.genetics

9 Polygenic Inheritance Polygenic inheritance is when a single trait is controlled by 2 or more sets of alleles. Most human traits are polygenically inherited. Examples would be skin and eye color. This explains how you can have several different phenotypes for one trait and how parents can have offspring with eye color or skin color different from what they have.

10 Chapter 15~ The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

11 The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Genes have specific loci on chromosomes and chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment

12 Chromosomal Linkage Morgan Drosophilia melanogaster XX (female) vs. XY (male) Sex-linkage: genes located on a sex chromosome Linked genes: genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together

13 autosomal chromosomes sex chromosomes Classes of chromosomes

14 Huh! Sex matters?! F 2 generation 100% red-eye female 50% red-eye male 50% white eye male Discovery of sex linkage P X F 1 generation (hybrids) 100% red eye offspring true-breeding white-eye male true-breeding red-eye female

15 RRrr What’s up with Morgan’s flies? x rr R R Rr 100% red eyes Rr x Rr R r RR Rrrr Rr 3 red : 1 white  Doesn’t work that way!

16 Linked genes chp10/1002s.swf

17 In humans & other mammals, there are 2 sex chromosomes: X & Y – 2 X chromosomes develop as a female: XX gene redundancy, like autosomal chromosomes – an X & Y chromosome develop as a male: XY no redundancy Genetics of Sex XY X X XX XY 50% female : 50% male XX

18 XRXRXRXR XrYXrY Let’s reconsider Morgan’s flies… x XrXr Y XRXR 100% red eyes XRXR XRXrXRXr XRYXRY XRYXRYXRXrXRXr x  XRXrXRXr XRYXRY XRXR Y XRXR XrXr XRXrXRXr XRYXRYXRXRXRXR XrYXrY 100% red females 50% red males; 50% white males BINGO!

19 Genetic recombination Crossing over Genes that DO NOT assort independently of each other Genetic maps The further apart 2 genes are, the higher the probability that a crossover will occur between them and therefore the higher the recombination frequency Linkage maps Genetic map based on recombination frequencies

20 Genes on sex chromosomes Y chromosome – few genes other than SRY sex-determining region master regulator for maleness turns on genes for production of male hormones – many effects = pleiotropy! X chromosome – other genes/traits beyond sex determination mutations: – hemophilia – Duchenne muscular dystrophy – color-blindness

21 Human sex-linkage SRY gene: gene on Y chromosome that triggers the development of testes Fathers= pass X-linked alleles to all daughters only (but not to sons) Mothers= pass X-linked alleles to both sons & daughters Sex-Linked Disorders: Color-blindness; Duchenne muscular dystropy (MD); hemophilia


23 Hemophilia Hh x HH XHYXHY XHXhXHXh XHXhXHXh XHXH XhXh XHYXHY Y XHXH sex-linked recessive XHXH Y male / sperm XHXH XhXh female / eggs XHXHXHXH XHXhXHXh XHYXHYXhYXhY XHXHXHXH XHYXHY XHXhXHXh XhYXhY carrierdisease

24 AP Biology X-inactivation  Female mammals inherit 2 X chromosomes  one X becomes inactivated during embryonic development  condenses into compact object = Barr body  which X becomes Barr body is random  patchwork trait = “mosaic” XHXH XhXh XHXhXHXh patches of black patches of orange tricolor cats can only be female

25 Human sex-linkage X-inactivation: 2nd X chromosome in females condenses into a Barr body (e.g., tortoiseshell gene gene in cats)

26 2006-2007 Errors of Meiosis Chromosomal Abnormalities

27 Chromosomal abnormalities Incorrect number of chromosomes – nondisjunction chromosomes don’t separate properly during meiosis – breakage of chromosomes deletion duplication inversion translocation

28 AP Biology Nondisjunction  Problems with meiotic spindle cause errors in daughter cells  homologous chromosomes do not separate properly during Meiosis 1  sister chromatids fail to separate during Meiosis 2  too many or too few chromosomes 2n n n n-1 n+1

29 AP Biology Alteration of chromosome number all with incorrect number1/2 with incorrect number error in Meiosis 1 error in Meiosis 2

30 AP Biology trisomy 2n+1 Nondisjunction  Baby has wrong chromosome number~ aneuploidy  trisomy  cells have 3 copies of a chromosome  monosomy  cells have only 1 copy of a chromosome n+1n monosomy 2n-1 n-1n

31 AP Biology Human chromosome disorders  High frequency in humans  most embryos are spontaneously aborted  alterations are too disastrous  developmental problems result from biochemical imbalance  imbalance in regulatory molecules?  hormones?  transcription factors?  Certain conditions are tolerated  upset the balance less = survivable  but characteristic set of symptoms = syndrome

32 AP Biology Down syndrome  Trisomy 21  3 copies of chromosome 21  1 in 700 children born in U.S.  Chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome  but still severe effects  Frequency of Down syndrome correlates with the age of the mother

33 AP Biology Sex chromosomes abnormalities  Human development more tolerant of wrong numbers in sex chromosome  But produces a variety of distinct syndromes in humans  XXY = Klinefelter’s syndrome male  XXX = Trisomy X female  XYY = Jacob’s syndrome male  XO = Turner syndrome female

34 AP Biology  XXY male  one in every 2000 live births  have male sex organs, but are sterile  feminine characteristics  some breast development  lack of facial hair  tall  normal intelligence Klinefelter’s syndrome

35 AP Biology Klinefelter’s syndrome

36 AP Biology Jacob’s syndrome male  XYY Males  1 in 1000 live male births  extra Y chromosome  slightly taller than average  more active  normal intelligence, slight learning disabilities  delayed emotional maturity  normal sexual development

37 AP Biology Trisomy X  XXX  1 in every 2000 live births  produces healthy females  Why?  Barr bodies  all but one X chromosome is inactivated

38 AP Biology Turner syndrome  Monosomy X or X0  1 in every 5000 births  varied degree of effects  webbed neck  short stature  sterile

39 AP Biology Changes in chromosome structure  deletion  loss of a chromosomal segment  duplication  repeat a segment  inversion  reverses a segment  translocation  move segment from one chromosome to another error of replication error of crossing over

40 Chromosomal errors VI Deletion Duplication Inversion Reciprocal translocation Nonhomologous chromosomes Homologous chromosomes

41 Genomic imprinting Def: a parental effect on gene expression Identical alleles may have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm. Fragile X syndrome: higher prevalence of disorder and retardation in males

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