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P Generation Yellow-round seeds (YYRR) Y F 1 Generation Y R R R Y  r r r y y y Meiosis Fertilization Gametes Green-wrinkled seeds ( yyrr) All F 1 plants.

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Presentation on theme: "P Generation Yellow-round seeds (YYRR) Y F 1 Generation Y R R R Y  r r r y y y Meiosis Fertilization Gametes Green-wrinkled seeds ( yyrr) All F 1 plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 P Generation Yellow-round seeds (YYRR) Y F 1 Generation Y R R R Y  r r r y y y Meiosis Fertilization Gametes Green-wrinkled seeds ( yyrr) All F 1 plants produce yellow-round seeds ( YyRr ) R R Y Y r r y y Meiosis R R Y Y r r y y Metaphase I Y Y RR r r y y Anaphase I r r y Y Metaphase II R Y R y y y y R R Y Y r r r r y Y Y R R yR Yr yr YR 1/41/4 1/41/4 1/41/4 1/41/4 F 2 Generation Gametes An F 1  F 1 cross-fertilization 9 : 3 : 1 LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation. LAW OF SEGREGATION The two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation

2 Parent Bud 0.5 mm 2

3 P Generation F1F1 F2F2 All offspring had red eyes Sperm Eggs F1F1 F2F2 P Sperm Eggs   X X X Y CONCLUSION EXPERIMENT RESULTS w w w w w w w w w w ww w w w w w

4 X Y 4

5 44 + XY Parents 44 + XX 22 + X 22 + X 22 + Y or XX or Sperm Egg 44 + XY Zygotes (offspring) (a) The X-Y system 22 + XX 22 + X (b) The X-0 system 76 + ZW 76 + ZZ (c) The Z-W system 32 (Diploid) 16 (Haploid) (d) The haplo-diploid system 5

6 (a)(b) (c) XNXNXNXN XnYXnY XNXnXNXn   XNYXNY XNXnXNXn  XnYXnY Y XnXn Sperm Y XNXN Y XnXn XNXnXNXn Eggs XNXN XNXN XNXnXNXn XNYXNY XNYXNY XNXN XnXn XNXNXNXN XnXNXnXN XNYXNY XnYXnY XNXN XnXn XNXnXNXn XnXnXnXn XNYXNY XnYXnY 6

7 X chromosomes Early embryo: Allele for orange fur Allele for black fur Cell division and X chromosome inactivation Two cell populations in adult cat: Active X Inactive X Black furOrange fur 7

8 EXPERIMENT P Generation (homozygous) RESULTS Wild type (gray body, normal wings ) Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings)  b b vg vg Double mutant TESTCROSS  b + b + vg + vg + F 1 dihybrid (wild type) b + b vg + vg Testcross offspring Eggs b + vg + b vg b + vg b vg + Black- normal Gray- vestigial Black- vestigial Wild type (gray-normal) b vg Sperm b + b vg + vg b b vg vg b + b vg vg b b vg + vg PREDICTED RATIOS If genes are located on different chromosomes: If genes are located on the same chromosome and parental alleles are always inherited together: : : : : : : : : : 8

9 Testcross parents Replication of chromo- somes Gray body, normal wings (F 1 dihybrid) Black body, vestigial wings (double mutant) Replication of chromo- somes b + vg + b vg b + vg + b + vg b vg + b vg Recombinant chromosomes Meiosis I and II Meiosis I Meiosis II b vg + b + vg b vg b + vg + Eggs Testcross offspring 965 Wild type (gray-normal) 944 Black- vestigial 206 Gray- vestigial 185 Black- normal b + vg + b vg b + vg b vg b vg + Sperm b vg Parental-type offspringRecombinant offspring Recombination frequency = 391 recombinants 2,300 total offspring  100 = 17% 9

10 RESULTS Recombination frequencies Chromosome 9%9.5% 17% bcnvg 10

11 Mutant phenotypes Short aristae Black body Cinnabar eyes Vestigial wings Brown eyes Red eyes Normal wings Red eyes Gray body Long aristae (appendages on head) Wild-type phenotypes

12 Meiosis I Nondisjunction (a) Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I (b) Nondisjunction of sister chromatids in meiosis II Meiosis II Nondisjunction Gametes Number of chromosomes n + 1 n – 1 nn 12

13 Deletion A B C D E F G HA B C E F G H (a) (b) (c) (d) Duplication Inversion Reciprocal translocation A B C D E F G H A B C B C D E F G H A D C B E F G H M N O C D E F G H M N O P Q RA B P Q R 13

14 Normal chromosome 9 Normal chromosome 22 Reciprocal translocation Translocated chromosome 9 Translocated chromosome 22 (Philadelphia chromosome) 14

15 Normal Igf2 allele is expressed Paternal chromosome Maternal chromosome Normal Igf2 allele is not expressed Mutant Igf2 allele inherited from mother (a) Homozygote Wild-type mouse (normal size) Mutant Igf2 allele inherited from father Normal size mouse (wild type) Dwarf mouse (mutant) Normal Igf2 allele is expressed Mutant Igf2 allele is expressed Mutant Igf2 allele is not expressed Normal Igf2 allele is not expressed (b) Heterozygotes 15


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