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Meiosis Genetic Variation.

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Presentation on theme: "Meiosis Genetic Variation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meiosis Genetic Variation

2 Homologous Chromosomes
homologous chromosomes- a pair of chromosomes that code for the same trait (one from mom one form dad) 23 pairs in humans

3 Karyotype A karyotype - is an ordered display of the pairs of homologous chromosomes from a cell

4 Chromosomes Types sex chromosomes - are called X and Y
Human females (XX) homologous pair Human males (XY)homologous pair autosomes -The 22 pairs of chromosomes that do not determine sex (determine everything else) XY XX

5 Meiosis Meiosis – creates four haploid (n) gametes (egg or sperm) (two divisions) Egg and sperm unite to form a diploid (2n) zygote. (develops into an embryo) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

6 Interphase The same as mitosis Fig. 13-4
Figure 13.4 Describing chromosomes

7 Prophase I Longest phase (two main things happen in prohase one)
Synapsis Crossing over

8 Synapsis Synapsis – homologous chromosomes pair up
Sister chromatids connnect to other homologous sister chromatids to form a tetrad. Tetrad (Synapsis)

9 Crossing Over Crossing over – homologous chromosomes exchange DNA while connected as tetrads. Chiasma -the point at which they connect to exchange DNA **

10 Metaphase I In metaphase I, tetrads line up at the metaphase plate
Independent assortment – homologous chromosomes line up randomly on any side (ex. All of mom’s chromosomes don’t line up on one side)

11 Anaphase I In anaphase I, tetrads separate (homologous chromosomes are separated) Sister chromatids remain attached at the centromere and move as one unit toward the pole Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

12 Telephase I The cell is divided into two halves with sister chromatids in each half. They are no longer identical because of crossing over. Cytokinesis usually occurs simultaneously, forming two daughter cells (not identical). 2 cells are now present. Cleavage Furrow

13 Meiosis II (repeat) Meiosis II is very similar to mitosis:
Prophase II – spindle fibers and kinetichores form Metaphase II – chromatids line up Anaphase II – chromatids are separated into individual chromosomes Telophase II and cytokinesis – each cell splits, and nuclei reform (4 unidentical haploid cells are now present) **

14 Telophase II and Cytokinesis
Fig. 13-8d Telophase II and Cytokinesis Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Figure 13.8 The meiotic division of an animal cell Sister chromatids separate Haploid daughter cells forming

15 Mitosis vs. Meiosis


17 Creating Variation The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization is responsible for most of the variation that arises in each generation Three mechanisms contribute to genetic variation: Independent assortment of chromosomes Crossing over Random fertilization Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

18 Independent Assortment
The number of combinations possible when chromosomes assort independently into gametes is 2n, where n is the haploid number

19 Crossing Over Crossing over produces recombinant chromosomes
(new combinations of chromosomes), which combines genes inherited from each parent

20 Random Fertilization Random fertilization adds to genetic variation because any sperm can fuse with any egg An egg and sperm can make about 70 trillion diploid combinations **

21 You should now be able to:
Distinguish between the following terms: somatic cell and gamete; autosome and sex chromosomes; haploid and diploid Describe the events that characterize each phase of meiosis Describe three events that occur during meiosis I but not mitosis Name and explain the three events that contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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