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CHAPTER 10 Genetics: Mendel and Beyond

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1 CHAPTER 10 Genetics: Mendel and Beyond

2 Chapter 10: Genetics: Mendel and Beyond
The Foundations of Genetics Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance Alleles and Their Interactions Gene Interactions

3 Chapter 10: Genetics: Mendel and Beyond
Genes and Chromosomes Sex Determination and Sex-Linked Inheritance Non-Nuclear Inheritance

4 The Foundations of Genetics
It has long been known that both parent plants contribute equally to character traits of offspring Before Mendel’s time it was believed that once brought together, the units of inheritance blended and could never be separated. 4

5 figure jpg Figure 10.1 Figure 10.1

6 The Foundations of Genetics
Although Gregor Mendel’s work was meticulous and well documented, his discoveries, reported in the 1860s, lay dormant until decades later. 6

7 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
Mendel used garden pea plants for his studies because they were easily cultivated and crossed They showed numerous characters with clearly different traits. Review Figure 10.1, Table 10.1 7

8 figure jpg Figure 10.1 Figure 10.1

9 table jpg Table 10.1 Table 10.1

10 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
In a monohybrid cross, the offspring showed one of the two traits. Mendel proposed that the trait observed in the first generation (F1) was dominant and the other was recessive. This is Mendel’s first law. Review Table 10.1 9

11 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
When the F1 offspring were self-pollinated, the F2 generation showed a 3:1 phenotypic ratio, with the recessive phenotype present in one-fourth of the offspring. Reappearance of the recessive phenotype refuted the blending hypothesis. Review Figure 10.3 10

12 figure jpg Figure 10.3 Figure 10.3

13 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
Because some alleles are dominant and some are recessive, the same phenotype can result from different genotypes. Homozygous genotypes have two copies of the same allele; heterozygous genotypes have two different alleles. Heterozygous genotypes yield phenotypes showing the dominant trait. 12

14 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
After many crosses, Mendel proposed his second law: the units of inheritance (genes) are particulate there are two copies (alleles) of each gene in every parent during gamete formation the two alleles for a character segregate from each other. Review Figure 10.4 13

15 figure jpg Figure 10.4 Figure 10.4

16 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
Geneticists who followed Mendel showed that genes are carried on chromosomes and that alleles are segregated during meiosis I. Review Figure 10.5 15

17 figure jpg Figure 10.5 Figure 10.5

18 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
Using a test cross, Mendel was able to determine whether a plant showing the dominant phenotype was homozygous or heterozygous. The appearance of the recessive phenotype in half of the offspring indicates that the parent is heterozygous. Review Figure 10.6 17

19 figure jpg Figure 10.6 Figure 10.6

20 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
From studies of the simultaneous inheritance of two characters, Mendel concluded that alleles of different genes assort independently. Review Figures 10.7, 10.8 19

21 figure jpg Figure 10.7 Figure 10.7

22 figure jpg Figure 10.8 Figure 10.8

23 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
We can predict the results of hybrid crosses by using a Punnett square or by calculating probabilities. To determine the joint probability of independent events, individual probabilities are multiplied. To determine the probability of an event that can occur in two or more different ways, they are added. Review Figure 10.9 22

24 figure jpg Figure 10.9 Figure 10.9

25 Mendel’s Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
That humans exhibit Mendelian inheritance can be inferred by the analysis of pedigrees. Review Figures 10.10, 10.11 24

26 figure jpg Figure 10.10 Figure 10.10

27 figure jpg Figure 10.11 Figure 10.11

28 Alleles and Their Interactions
New alleles arise by mutation, and many genes have multiple alleles. 27

29 figure jpg Figure 10.14 Figure 10.14

30 Alleles and Their Interactions
Dominance is usually not complete, since both alleles in a heterozygous organism may be expressed in the phenotype. Review Figures 10.13, 10.14 30

31 figure jpg Figure 10.13 Figure 10.13

32 Gene Interactions In epistasis, the products of different genes interact to produce a phenotype. 31

33 Gene Interactions In some cases, the phenotype is the result of the additive effects of several genes (polygenes), and inheritance is quantitative. Review Figure 10.17 32

34 figure jpg Figure 10.17 Figure 10.17

35 Gene Interactions Environmental variables such as temperature, nutrition, and light affect gene action. 34

36 Genes and Chromosomes Each chromosome carries many genes.
Genes located on the same chromosome are said to be linked, and are often inherited together. Review Figures 10.19, 10.20 35

37 figure jpg Figure 10.19 Figure 10.19

38 figure jpg Figure 10.20 Figure 10.20

39 Genes and Chromosomes Linked genes recombine by crossing over in prophase I of meiosis, resulting in recombinant gametes, which have new combinations of linked genes. Review Figures 10.21, 10.22 38

40 figure 10-21a.jpg Figure – Part 1 Figure – Part 1

41 figure 10-21b.jpg Figure – Part 2 Figure – Part 2

42 figure jpg Figure 10.22 Figure 10.22

43 Genes and Chromosomes The distance between genes on a chromosome is proportional to the frequency of crossing over. Genetic maps are based on recombinant frequencies. Review Figures 10.23 42

44 figure jpg Figure 10.23 Figure 10.23

45 Sex Determination and Sex-Linked Inheritance
Sex chromosomes carry genes that determine whether male or female gametes are produced. Specific functions of X and Y chromosomes differ among species. 44

46 Sex Determination and Sex-Linked Inheritance
In fruit flies and mammals, the X chromosome carries many genes, but the Y chromosome has only a few. Males have only one allele for most X-linked genes, so rare alleles appear phenotypically more often in males. Review Figures 10.25, 10.26 45

47 figure jpg Figure 10.25 Figure 10.25

48 figure jpg Figure 10.26 Figure 10.26

49 Non-Nuclear Inheritance
Cytoplasmic organelles such as plastids and mitochondria contain some heritable genes. 48

50 Non-Nuclear Inheritance
Cytoplasmic inheritance is generally by way of the egg Male gametes contribute only their nucleus to the zygote at fertilization. 49

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