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© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.1 Mendelian Genetics.

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1 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.1 Mendelian Genetics

2 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.5-3 P Generation Gametes: Appearance: Genetic makeup: F 1 Generation F 2 Generation Purple flowers PP White flowers pp Gametes: Appearance: Genetic makeup: Eggs from F 1 (Pp) plant Sperm from F 1 (Pp) plant ½ ½ Purple flowers Pp P P p p P p P p PP pp Pp 3 : 1

3 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.6 Phenotype 1 Genotype Purple White Ratio 3:1 PP (homozygous) Pp (heterozygous) Pp (heterozygous) pp (homozygous) Ratio 1:2:1 2 3 1 1

4 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 11.1

5 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.8 YRyr YR yr YYRR yyrr YyRr Experiment Predictions P Generation F 1 Generation Predicted offspring in F 2 generation Gametes YYRR yyrr YyRr Results Eggs Sperm or Hypothesis of dependent assortment Phenotypic ratio 3:1 Hypothesis of independent assortment ¾ ¼ ½ ½ ½ ½ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼¼ ¼ ¼ YR yr Phenotypic ratio approximately 9:3:3:1 Phenotypic ratio 9:3:3:1 YR yr YR yr YYRR yyrr YYRr YyRr YryR Yr yR YyRR YYRrYYrr Yyrr YyRr YyRRYyRr yyRr yyRR YyRrYyrr yyRr 315108 10132 9 16 3 16 1 16

6 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.4 Allele for purple flowers Pair of homologous chromosomes Allele for white flowers Locus for flower-color gene

7 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.9 R r R r R r Segregation of alleles into eggs Eggs Sperm ¼ ½½ ½ ½ Segregation of alleles into sperm Rr  R R ¼ r r ¼ R r ¼

8 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiplication Rule: The probability that two or more events will occur together is the product of the individual probabilities Addition Rule: the probability that any one of two mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities.

9 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.10-3 Eggs ½ ½ ½ ½ P Generation F 1 Generation Gametes F 2 Generation Gametes Sperm White C W Pink C R C W Red C R CWCWCWCW CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CWCW CRCR CWCW CRCR ½½ CWCW CRCR CWCW CRCR CRCWCRCW

10 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.11 Carbohydrate (b) Blood group genotypes and phenotypes Allele Red blood cell appearance Genotype none B A IBIB Phenotype (blood group) i IAIA IAIBIAIB ii I A I A or I A i I B I B or I B i B A O AB (a) The three alleles for the ABO blood groups and their carbohydrates

11 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.14b Affected male Affected female Male Female Key Mating Offspring, in birth order (first-born on left) 1st generation (grandparents) 3rd generation (two sisters) 2nd generation (parents, aunts, and uncles) Attached earlobeFree earlobe FF or Ff ff Ff ff FfFF or Ff ffFf (b) Is an attached earlobe a dominant or recessive trait?

12 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.16 Parents Sperm Dwarf Dd Normal dd Eggs Dd Dwarf dd Normal Dd Dwarf dd Normal d d Dd

13 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

14 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.1

15 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. P Generation Gametes Yellow-round seeds (YYRR) F 1 Generation Meiosis Fertilization Meiosis Metaphase I LAW OF SEGREGATION The two alleles for each gene separate. All F 1 plants produce yellow-round seeds (YyRr). Green-wrinkled seeds (yyrr) LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently. Anaphase I Metaphase II y y y YR R R Y Y r r r rr y y RR Y Y YY y y r r R R RR rr YY y y y Y r r Y R R y Y Y R R y y r r r Y Y r R R y y 1 4 / 1 4 / 1 4 / 1 4 / YR Yr yR yr F 2 Generation Fertilization recombines the R and r alleles at random. 9: 3 : 1 An F 1  F 1 cross-fertilization Fertilization results in the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio in the F 2 generation. 1 2 1 2 3 3 Figure 12.2

16 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.2a P Generation Gametes Yellow-round seeds (YYRR) Meiosis Fertilization Green-wrinkled seeds (yyrr) R R Y Y Y R r y y y r r

17 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. F 1 Generation LAW OF SEGREGATION The two alleles for each gene separate. All F 1 plants produce yellow-round seeds (YyRr). LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently. Meiosis Metaphase I Anaphase I Metaphase II R R 1 4  yR 1 4  1 4  1 4  Yr yr YR y y y Y r r r Y y y r Y R R Y Y y R r r Y R Rr y Y Y R y r Y R y r y r R Y R R YY y r r y 1 2 2 1 Figure 12.2b

18 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. LAW OF SEGREGATION LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT F 2 Generation Fertilization recombines the R and r alleles at random. 9 : 3 : 1 An F 1  F 1 cross-fertilization Fertilization results in the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio in the F 2 generation. 33 Figure 12.2c

19 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.4 Experiment P Generation Results F 1 Generation F 2 Generation All offspring had red eyes. Eggs ww ww w w ww ww ww ww w Sperm X Y X X ww ww ww ww ww ww w Conclusion F 1 Generation F 2 Generation P Generation

20 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.4a Experiment P Generation Results F 1 Generation F 2 Generation All offspring had red eyes.

21 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.4b Eggs ww Sperm X Conclusion F 1 Generation F 2 Generation P Generation X ww w X Y w ww ww w ww ww ww ww ww w w ww w ww

22 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.5 X Y

23 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.6 Parents Zygotes (offspring) SpermEgg 44  XY 44  XX 44  XX 44  XY or 22  X 22  X 22  Y

24 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.7 XNXNXNXN XnYXnY Y XnXn XNXN XNXN XNXnXNXn XNXnXNXn XNYXNY XNYXNY Eggs (a) Sperm Eggs (c)(b) XNYXNY XNXnXNXn XNXnXNXn XnYXnY XnXn Y XNXN XnXn XNXnXNXn XnXnXnXn XnYXnY XNYXNY XNXN XnXn XNXN Y XNXNXNXN XnYXnY XNXnXNXn XNYXNY

25 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.8 Early embryo: Two cell populations in adult cat: X chromosomes Cell division and X chromosome inactivation Allele for orange fur Allele for black fur Active X Orange furBlack fur Inactive X Active X

26 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.8a

27 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.UN01 F 1 dihybrid female and homozygous recessive male in testcross Most offspring b  vg  b vg b  vg  or

28 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.9 Experiment P Generation (homozygous) Wild type (gray body, normal wings) F 1 dihybrid testcross Wild-type F 1 dihybrid (gray body, normal wings) b  b  vg  vg  b  b vg  vg Testcross offspring Eggs Sperm b vg b  vg  b  vgb vgb vg  Wild-type (gray-normal) Black- vestigial Gray- vestigial Black- normal b b vg vg Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) Homozygous recessive (black body, vestigial wings) b  b vg  vg b b vg vgb  b vg vg b b vg  vg PREDICTED RATIOS Genes on different chromosomes: Genes on some chromosome: Results 1111::: 11:::00 :::965944206185

29 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.9a Experiment P Generation (homozygous) Wild type (gray body, normal wings) F 1 dihybrid testcross Wild-type F 1 dihybrid (gray body, normal wings) b  b  vg  vg  b  b vg  vg b b vg vg Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) Homozygous recessive (black body, vestigial wings)

30 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.9b b  b vg  vg b b vg vg b  b vg vg b b vg  vg Eggs Sperm b vg b  vg  b  vgb vgb vg  Wild-type (gray-normal) Black- vestigial Gray- vestigial Black- normal Experiment Testcross offspring PREDICTED RATIOS Genes on different chromosomes: Genes on same chromosome: Results : 965 944206185 :: ::: ::: 1111 1100

31 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.UN02 Gametes from green- wrinkled homozygous recessive parent (yyrr) Gametes from yellow-round dihybrid parent (YyRr) Parental- type offspring Recombinant offspring YRYr yr yR yyRrYyrrYyRryyrr

32 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Recombination of Linked Genes: Crossing Over Morgan discovered that even when two genes were on the same chromosome, some recombinant phenotypes were observed He proposed that some process must occasionally break the physical connection between genes on the same chromosome That mechanism was the crossing over between homologous chromosomes Animation: Crossing Over

33 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.10 P generation (homozygous) F 1 dihybrid testcross Wild type (gray body, normal wings) Wild-type F 1 dihybrid (gray body, normal wings) b  vg + b vg b  vg + b vg b  vg + Replication of chromosomes Meiosis I Meiosis II Eggs b  vg b vg  b vg b  vg + b vg b  vgb vg  Meiosis I and II Recombinant chromosomes Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) Homozygous recessive (black body, vestigial wings) Replication of chromosomes b vg Sperm 185 Black- normal 206 Gray- vestigial 944 Black- vestigial 965 Wild type (gray-normal) b vg  b  vgb vgb  vg  b vg Testcross offspring Parental-type offspringRecombinant offspring Recombination frequency  100  17% 2,300 total offspring 391 recombinants

34 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.10a P generation (homozygous) Wild type (gray body, normal wings) Wild-type F 1 dihybrid (gray body, normal wings) b  vg + Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) b  vg + b vg

35 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.10b b  vg + b vg b  vg + b vg b  vg + b  vg b vg  b vg Meiosis I Meiosis I and II Meiosis II Eggs b vg b vg + b + vgb + vg + Sperm Wild-type F 1 dihybrid (gray body, normal wings) F 1 dihybrid testcross Recombinant chromosomes Homozygous recessive (black body, vestigial wings)

36 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.10c b  vg + b vg b vg  b  vg Recombinant chromosomes Eggs 185 Black- normal 206 Gray- vestigial 944 Black- vestigial 965 Wild type (gray-normal) Testcross offspring Sperm b vg b vg  b  vg b vg b  vg  b vg Parental-type offspring Recombinant offspring Recombination frequency   100  17% 2,300 total offspring 391 recombinants

37 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.11 Recombination frequencies Results Chromosome bcnvg 17% 9.5%9%

38 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.12 Short aristae Black body Cinnabar eyes Vestigial wings Brown eyes Red eyes Normal wings Red eyes Gray body Long aristae (appendages on head) Wild-type phenotypes 048.557.567.0104.5 Mutant phenotypes

39 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.13-1 Meiosis I Nondisjunction

40 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.13-2 Meiosis I Nondisjunction Meiosis II Non- disjunction

41 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.13-3 Meiosis I Nondisjunction Meiosis II Non- disjunction Gametes Number of chromosomes Nondisjunction of homo- logous chromosomes in meiosis I (a)(b) Nondisjunction of sister chromatids in meiosis II n  1 n − 1 nn

42 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.14 (a) Deletion(c) Inversion A deletion removes a chromosomal segment. (b) Duplication (d) Translocation An inversion reverses a segment within a chromosome. A translocation moves a segment from one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome. A duplication repeats a segment.

43 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.14a (a) Deletion A deletion removes a chromosomal segment. (b) Duplication A duplication repeats a segment.

44 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.14b (c) Inversion (d) Translocation An inversion reverses a segment within a chromosome. A translocation moves a segment from one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome.

45 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.15

46 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.15a

47 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.15b

48 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.16 Normal chromosome 9 Normal chromosome 22 Reciprocal translocation Translocated chromosome 9 Translocated chromosome 22 (Philadelphia chromosome)

49 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.UN03a

50 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.UN03b

51 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.UN04 Sperm P generation gametes This F 1 cell has 2n  6 chromo- somes and is heterozygous for all six genes shown (AaBbCcDdEeFf). Red  maternal; blue  paternal. Each chromosome has hundreds or thousands of genes. Four (A, B, C, F) are shown on this one. Genes on the same chromosome whose alleles are so close to- gether that they do not assort independently (such as a, b, and c) are said to be genetically linked. Egg The alleles of unlinked genes are either on separate chromosomes (such as d and e) or so far apart on the same chromosome (c and f) that they assort independently. C B A F D E d c b a e f e d D C B A F E a b c

52 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.UN05


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