4A dihybrid cross can be treated as two separate monohybrid crosses The expected probability of each type of seed can be calculated:Probability of an F2 seed being round = 75% or ¾Probability of an F2 seed being wrinkled =Probability of an F2 seed being yellow =Probability of an F2 seed being green =
5A dihybrid cross can be treated as two separate monohybrid crosses The expected probability of each type of seed can be calculated:Probability of an F2 seed being round = 75% or ¾Probability of an F2 seed being wrinkled = 25% or ¼Probability of an F2 seed being yellow = 75% or ¾Probability of an F2 seed being green = 25% or ¼
6THE LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT It appears that the inheritance of seed shape has no influence over the inheritance of seed colourThe two characters are inherited INDEPENDENTLYThe pairs of alleles that control these two characters assort themselves independently
7Mendel & MeiosisThe pairs of chromosomes could orientate in different ways at Anaphase 1
9PedigreesA pedigree is a genetic family tree that shows how prevalent a trait is in a family unit from generation to generation.They are often used to track the expression of genetic conditions and disorders.
10Pedigrees Squares represent males and circles females. A coloured in shape means that person has the trait in question.A half coloured in shape means that they are carrying an allele for a recessive trait.
12Anatomy of a Pedigree Male (left) Female (right) Affected individuals Carriers (Heterozygotes for autosomal recessive)Deceased individualsSex unspecifiedMale (left) Female (right)
13Autosomal Dominant Inheritance Autosomal means not on the sex chromosomes.Refers to those situations in which a single copy of an allele is sufficient to cause expression of a trait.
14Autosomal Dominant Inheritance 1. Every affected person should have at least one affected parent.2. Males and females should be equally often affected.3. An affected person has at least a 50% chance of transmitting the dominant allele to each offspring.
15Characteristics of a Dominant Pedigree An affected individual has at least one affected parentAs a result, dominant traits show a vertical pattern of inheritancethe trait shows up every generationTwo affected individuals may have unaffected childrenAaAssume trait isn’t happening spontaneously. How is this possible? (last pt)AAAaaaAaa15
16Autosomal Dominant Inheritance examples Progeria (caused by a mutation) in which the person ages very rapidly. They die before they can reproduce.Huntington’s Disease in which the central nervous system starts to break down around the age of 30.
17Autosomal Recessive Inheritance Refers to those situations where two recessive alleles result in a trait being expressed.
18Autosomal Recessive Inheritance 1. An affected person may not have affected parents. Parents would be carriers.2. Affects both sexes equally. Can appear to skip generations.3. Two affected parents will have affected children 100% of the time.
19Characteristics of Recessive Pedigrees In pedigrees involving rare traits, a horizontal pattern of inheritance is observedthe trait may not appear in every generationAn individual who is affected may have parents who are not affected, particularly as a result of consagineous matingsAll the children of two affected individuals are affectedaaaaaa
20Autosomal Recessive Examples Albinism is a genetic condition which is the loss of pigment in hair, skin and eyes.Tay Sachs is a genetic disorder which is a build up of fatty deposits in the brain, eventually proving to be fatal.Cystic Fibrosis is the most common fatal genetic disorder. Mutation in chloride transport protein that causes thick mucus to build up in lungs
21Pedigree of a family with some members showing Huntington disease
24Genetic Tests Karyotype Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Details chromosomal abnormalities through fluorescent tags on chromosomesGene testingAnalyzes specific sequence of gene. i.e. breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 and BRCA2Biochemical testingAnalyzes abnormal enzymes and proteins (Tay Sachs)
27Genetic Test for Cystic Fibrosis In 1989 researchers at Sick Kids identified the gene for cystic fibrosisGene was on chromosome 7 and named CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)Over 1600 possible mutations in CFTR!Genetic tests can identify mutations % of the time1 in every 3600 children in Canada are born with CF
28Genetic test for Huntington disease In 1983 the gene for Huntington disease called huntingtin was the first human disease-associated gene to be mapped to a chromosomeIn 1993 huntingtin gene was sequencedCAG repeatsCurrent genetic test looks for CAG repeats (36-39 repeats necessary for disease)
29Genetic CounsellingIf there is a family history of a disease, couples may consult a genetic counsellorUse pedigrees to determine genotypes of the family membersExplains probability on passing on disease-causing allele to children
30Issues with genetic screening Why carry out genetic screening at all?When is a test accurate and comprehensive enough to be used as the basis for screening?Once an accurate test becomes available at reasonable cost, should screening become required or optional?If a screening program is established, who should be tested?Should private companies and insurance companies have access to employees and client test results?What education needs to be provided regarding test results?
31Gene Therapy: A future cure? Technique aimed at treating genetic disorders by introducing the correct form of the defective gene into a patient’s genomeCopy of “normal” gene is inserted into a vector (usually viral DNA)Virus infects cells and delivers gene into chromosomes
33Future of Gene TherapyStill in experimental stages due to two obstacles:immune response to viral vector and poor integration into target chromosomeIn 2000 St. Michael’s Hospital became performed Canada’s first gene therapy for treatment of heart disease; gene produced protein for stimulation of new blood vessels