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Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11. 2 Ramifications of meiosis MOST animals and plants reproduce sexually plays a key role in generating the tremendous.

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Presentation on theme: "Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11. 2 Ramifications of meiosis MOST animals and plants reproduce sexually plays a key role in generating the tremendous."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11

2 2 Ramifications of meiosis MOST animals and plants reproduce sexually plays a key role in generating the tremendous genetic diversity of evolution Genetic contributions from 2 cells instead of 1

3 3 History of meiosis Walther Fleming discovers chromosomes Cytologist Edouard van Beneden discovers different # of chromosomes in different cell in roundworm 1883-proposes idea that gametes contain ½ # of chromosomes These join to form a zygote

4 4 Overview of Meiosis Meiosis is a form of cell division that leads to the production of gametes. gametes: egg cells and sperm cells -contain half the number of chromosomes of an adult body cell Adult body cells (somatic cells) are diploid, containing 2 sets of chromosomes. Gametes are haploid, containing only 1 set of chromosomes.

5 5 Overview of Meiosis Sexual reproduction includes the fusion of gametes (fertilization or syngamy) to produce a diploid zygote. Life cycles of sexually reproducing organisms involve the alternation of haploid and diploid stages. Some life cycles include longer diploid phases, some include longer haploid phases.

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10 10 GERM-LINE CELLS Cells that will eventually be gametes are set aside early in embryonic development Gamete producing germ-line cells are Diploid Undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes

11 11 Features of Meiosis Meiosis includes two rounds of division – meiosis I and meiosis II. During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes (homologues) become closely associated with each other. This is synapsis. Proteins between the homologues hold them in a synaptonemal complex. Sometimes called a tetrad.

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13 13 Features of Meiosis Crossing over: genetic recombination between non-sister chromatids -physical exchange of regions of the chromatids chiasmata: sites of crossing over The homologues are separated from each other in anaphase I.

14 14 Features of Meiosis Meiosis involves two successive cell divisions with no replication of genetic material in the 2 nd, just a separation of the sister chromatids for each homologue. This results in a reduction of the chromosome number from diploid to haploid. The first division is called “reduction division”.

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16 16 The Process of Meiosis Prophase I: -chromosomes coil tighter -nuclear envelope dissolves -homologues become closely associated in synapsis -crossing over occurs between non- sister chromatids (different from mitosis)

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19 19 The Process of Meiosis Metaphase I: -terminal chiasmata hold homologues together following crossing over -microtubules from opposite poles attach to each homologue, not each sister chromatid -homologues are aligned at the metaphase plate side-by-side -the orientation of each pair of homologues on the spindle is random

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23 23 The Process of Meiosis Anaphase I: -microtubules of the spindle shorten -homologues are separated from each other -sister chromatids remain attached to each other at their centromeres Genes on different chromosomes assort differently (independent assortment)

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25 25 The Process of Meiosis Telophase I: -nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes -each new nucleus is now haploid -sister chromatids are no longer identical because of crossing over

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27 27 The Process of Meiosis Meiosis II resembles a mitotic division: -prophase II: nuclear envelopes dissolve and spindle apparatus forms -metaphase II: chromosomes align on metaphase plate -anaphase II: sister chromatids are separated from each other -telophase II: nuclear envelope re-forms; cytokinesis follows

28 28 Final result 4 different haploid cells in animals become gametes Plants, fungi, protists increased number of gametes Varying # of chromosome sets found in some insects and plants – this results in polyploidy- (1 or more entire sets of chromosomes added to a diploid gamete)

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33 33 ERRORS IN MEIOSIS Nondisjunction- Aneuploid gametes-

34 34 Meiosis vs. Mitosis Meiosis is characterized by 4 features: 1. Synapsis and crossing over 2. Sister chromatids remain joined at their centromeres throughout meiosis I 3. Kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to the same pole in meiosis I 4. DNA replication is suppressed between meiosis I and meiosis II.

35 35 Meiosis vs. Mitosis Meiosis produces haploid cells that are not identical to each other. Genetic differences in these cells arise from: -crossing over -random alignment of homologues in metaphase I (independent assortment) Mitosis produces 2 cells identical to each other.

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