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Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Fig. 15-2b 0.5 mm Meiosis Metaphase I Anaphase I Metaphase II Gametes LAW OF SEGREGATION The two alleles.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Fig. 15-2b 0.5 mm Meiosis Metaphase I Anaphase I Metaphase II Gametes LAW OF SEGREGATION The two alleles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

2 Fig. 15-2b 0.5 mm Meiosis Metaphase I Anaphase I Metaphase II Gametes LAW OF SEGREGATION The two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation. LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation. 1 4 yr 1 4 Yr 1 4 YR 3 3 F 1 Generation 1 4 yR R R R R R R R R R R R R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y YY y rr r r r r r r r r r r y y y y y y y y y y y All F 1 plants produce yellow-round seeds (YyRr)

3 Fig. 15-3

4 Fig. 15-4a EXPERIMENT P Generation F1F1 All offspring had red eyes  RESULTS Generation F2F2

5 Fig. 15-4c Eggs F1F1 CONCLUSION Generation P X X w Sperm X Y Eggs Sperm Generation F2F2  w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w

6 Fig (a)(b) (c) XNXNXNXN XnYXnY XNXnXNXn   XNYXNYXNXnXNXn  XnYXnY YXnXn Sperm Y XNXN Y XnXn XNXnXNXn Eggs XNXN XNXN XNXnXNXn XNYXNY XNYXNY XNXN XnXn XNXNXNXN XnXNXnXN XNYXNY XnYXnY XNXN XnXn XNXnXNXn XnXnXnXn XNYXNY XnYXnY

7 X Inactivation in Female Mammals In mammalian females, one of the two X chromosomes in each cell is randomly inactivated during embryonic development The inactive X condenses into a Barr body If a female is heterozygous for a particular gene located on the X chromosome, she will be a mosaic for that character Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

8 Fig X chromosomes Early embryo: Allele for orange fur Allele for black fur Cell division and X chromosome inactivation Two cell populations in adult cat: Active X Inactive X Black furOrange fur

9 Fig. 15-UN1 b + vg + Parents in testcross Most offspring b + vg + b vg  or How Linkage Affects Inheritance

10 Fig EXPERIMENT P Generation (homozygous) RESULTS Wild type (gray body, normal wings ) Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings)  b b vg vg Double mutant TESTCROSS  b + b + vg + vg + F 1 dihybrid (wild type) b + b vg + vg Testcross offspring Eggs b + vg + b vg b + vg b vg + Black- normal Gray- vestigial Black- vestigial Wild type (gray-normal) b vg Sperm b + b vg + vg b b vg vg b + b vg vg b b vg + vg PREDICTED RATIOS If genes are located on different chromosomes: If genes are located on the same chromosome and parental alleles are always inherited together: : : : : : : : : :

11 Recombination of Linked Genes: Crossing Over

12 Fig a Testcross parents Replication of chromo- somes Gray body, normal wings (F 1 dihybrid) Black body, vestigial wings (double mutant) Replication of chromo- somes b + vg + b vg b + vg + b + vg b vg + b vg Recombinant chromosomes Meiosis I and II Meiosis I Meiosis II Eggs Sperm b + vg + b vg b + vg b vg b vg +

13 Fig b Testcross offspring 965 Wild type (gray-normal) 944 Black- vestigial 206 Gray- vestigial 185 Black- normal b + vg + b vg b + vg b vg b + vg + Sperm b vg Parental-type offspring Recombinant offspring Recombination frequency = 391 recombinants 2,300 total offspring  100 = 17% b vg b + vg b vg + Eggs Recombinant chromosomes

14 Fig Recombination frequencies Chromosome 9%9.5% 17% bcnvg Cytogenetic maps

15 Fig Mutant phenotypes Short aristae Black body Cinnabar eyes Vestigial wings Brown eyes Red eyes Normal wings Red eyes Gray body Long aristae (appendages on head) Wild-type phenotypes

16 Concept 15.4: Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders –spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) developmental disorders Abnormal Chromosome Number: nondisjunction: Aneuploidy and Polyploidy Alterations of Chromosome Structure

17 Fig Meiosis I (a) Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I (b) Nondisjunction of sister chromatids in meiosis II Nondisjunction

18 Fig Meiosis I Nondisjunction (a) Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I (b) Nondisjunction of sister chromatids in meiosis II Meiosis II Nondisjunction

19 Fig Meiosis I Nondisjunction (a) Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I (b) Nondisjunction of sister chromatids in meiosis II Meiosis II Nondisjunction Gametes Number of chromosomes n + 1 n – 1 nn

20 Aneuploidy results from the fertilization of gametes in which nondisjunction occurred Offspring with this condition have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome –A monosomic zygote has only one copy of a particular chromosome –A trisomic zygote has three copies of a particular chromosome

21 Polyploidy is a condition in which an organism has more than two complete sets of chromosomes –Triploidy (3n) is three sets of chromosomes –Tetraploidy (4n) is four sets of chromosomes Polyploidy is common in plants, but not animals Polyploids are more normal in appearance than aneuploids

22 Alterations of Chromosome Structure Breakage of a chromosome can lead to four types of changes in chromosome structure: –Deletion removes a chromosomal segment –Duplication repeats a segment –Inversion reverses a segment within a chromosome –Translocation moves a segment from one chromosome to another

23 Fig Deletion A B C D E F G HA B C E F G H (a) (b) (c) (d) Duplication Inversion Reciprocal translocation A B C D E F G H A B C B C D E F G H A D C B E F G H M N O C D E F G H M N O P Q RA B P Q R

24 Human Disorders Due to Chromosomal Alterations Alterations of chromosome number and structure are associated with some serious disorders Some types of aneuploidy appear to upset the genetic balance less than others, resulting in individuals surviving to birth and beyond These surviving individuals have a set of symptoms, or syndrome, characteristic of the type of aneuploidy

25 Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) Down syndrome is an aneuploid condition that results from three copies of chromosome 21 It affects about one out of every 700 children born in the United States The frequency of Down syndrome increases with the age of the mother, a correlation that has not been explained Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

26 Fig

27 Aneuploidy of Sex Chromosomes Nondisjunction of sex chromosomes produces a variety of aneuploid conditions Klinefelter syndrome is the result of an extra chromosome in a male, producing XXY individuals Monosomy X, called Turner syndrome, produces X0 females, who are sterile; it is the only known viable monosomy in humans

28 Disorders Caused by Structurally Altered Chromosomes The syndrome cri du chat (“cry of the cat”), results from a specific deletion in chromosome 5 Certain cancers, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), are caused by translocations of chromosomes

29 Fig Normal chromosome 9 Normal chromosome 22 Reciprocal translocation Translocated chromosome 9 Translocated chromosome 22 (Philadelphia chromosome)

30 Concept 15.5: Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to the standard chromosome theory There are two normal exceptions to Mendelian genetics One exception involves genes located in the nucleus, and the other exception involves genes located outside the nucleus

31 Genomic Imprinting For a few mammalian traits, the phenotype depends on which parent passed along the alleles for those traits Such variation in phenotype is called genomic imprinting Genomic imprinting involves the silencing of certain genes that are “stamped” with an imprint during gamete production

32 Fig a Normal Igf2 allele is expressed Paternal chromosome Maternal chromosome (a) Homozygote Wild-type mouse (normal size) Normal Igf2 allele is not expressed

33 Fig b Mutant Igf2 allele inherited from mother Mutant Igf2 allele inherited from father Normal size mouse (wild type) Dwarf mouse (mutant) Normal Igf2 allele is expressed Mutant Igf2 allele is expressed Mutant Igf2 allele is not expressed Normal Igf2 allele is not expressed (b) Heterozygotes

34 It appears that imprinting is the result of the methylation (addition of –CH 3 ) of DNA Genomic imprinting is thought to affect only a small fraction of mammalian genes Most imprinted genes are critical for embryonic development

35 Inheritance of Organelle Genes Extranuclear genes (or cytoplasmic genes) are genes found in organelles in the cytoplasm Mitochondria, chloroplasts, and other plant plastids carry small circular DNA molecules Extranuclear genes are inherited maternally because the zygote’s cytoplasm comes from the egg The first evidence of extranuclear genes came from studies on the inheritance of yellow or white patches on leaves of an otherwise green plant

36 Fig

37 Some defects in mitochondrial genes prevent cells from making enough ATP and result in diseases that affect the muscular and nervous systems –For example, mitochondrial myopathy and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

38 You should now be able to: 1.Explain how meiosis accounts for recombinant phenotypes 2.Explain how linkage maps are constructed 3. Explain how nondisjunction can lead to aneuploidy 4. Define trisomy, triploidy, and polyploidy 5.Distinguish among deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations 6.Explain genomic imprinting 7.Explain why extranuclear genes are not inherited in a Mendelian fashion


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