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7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping KEY CONCEPT Genes can be mapped to specific locations on chromosomes.

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Presentation on theme: "7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping KEY CONCEPT Genes can be mapped to specific locations on chromosomes."— Presentation transcript:

1 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping KEY CONCEPT Genes can be mapped to specific locations on chromosomes.

2 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Gene linkage was discovered by deviations from Mendel’s rules Mendel crossed pea plants with different discrete traits Alleles assort independently with 9:3:3:1 ratio

3 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping R.C. Punnett and William Bateson Developed Punnett squares. Crazy chicken breeder. Found that rates often did not follow 9:3:3:1 proportions Therefore, some genes are linked Cream Legbar chicken. Originally bred by Punnett

4 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Gene linkage was explained using fruit flies. Thomas Hunt Morgan studied fruit flies Found some traits were inherited together Linked traits fell into four groups Determined fruit flies have four pairs of chromosomes Chromosomes, not genes, assort independently during meiosis. Wild type Mutant

5 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Linked genes are not inherited together every time. Chromosomes exchange homologous genes during meiosis. Genes that are closer together will more often cross over together.

6 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Alfred Sturtevant (student of Morgan) Hypothesis: –Frequency of genes crossing-over together depends on distance between the genes on the chromosomes Experiments: –Found 3 linked traits in fruit flies: body color, eye color, wing size. –Recorded how many times the genes crossed over together. Number out of 100 (i.e. percent)

7 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Alfred Sturtevant (student of Morgan) Conclusions: –Determined rates of crossover between each of the three genes. –Linkage Maps show relative distance between genes on a chromosome –If you know crossover rates of three or more genes, you can determine their relative locations.

8 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Linkage maps estimate distances between genes. The closer together two genes are, the more likely they will be inherited together. Linkage maps show the relative locations of genes.

9 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping Cross-over frequencies can be converted into map units. – gene A and gene B cross over 6.0 percent of the time – gene B and gene C cross over 12.5 percent of the time – gene A and gene C cross over 18.5 percent of the time

10 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping

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12 Quiz Question 5: – gene A and gene B cross over 9.5 % of the time – gene B and gene C cross over 14.5 % of the time – gene A and gene C cross over 5 % of the time BC BC A A

13 7.3 Gene Linkage and Mapping


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