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Mendelism: The Basic Principles of Inheritance Asmarinah.

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1 Mendelism: The Basic Principles of Inheritance Asmarinah

2 Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) explained how the characteristics of organism are inherited His ideas was published under: “Experiment in Plant Hybridization” His discoveries coined a new term to describe the study of heredity: genetics (Greek word, meaning: to generate

3 Mendel’s Law (consist of 3 part) 1. The Principle of Dominance “In heterozygote, one allele may conceal the presence of another” -Dominant and recessive forms are called alleles (Greek word meaning: of one another) - Alleles are alternate forms of a gene

4 2. The Principle of Segregation “In a heterozygote, two different alleles segregate from each other during the formation of gametes” Both of Mendel’s law I and II, it can be explained by monohybrid crosses

5 Mendel crossed tall vs dwarf pea plant: -Tall male vs dwarf female -Dwarf male vs tall female Monohybrid crosses

6 Explanation: - Two reciprocal crosses gave same result: tall plant - Dwarf characteristic seemed disappeared in the progeny -After self-fertilization, result: tall and dwarf plant (with ratio of approximately 3 : 1) -Hybrids carried a latent factor for dwarfness and expression factor for tallness  latent factor: recessive expression factor: dominant


8 - Each trait is controlled by a hereditary factor that existed in two forms, one dominant and the other recessive - These factor are now called genes, a word coined by Wilhelm Johannsen (1909) -Each of reproductive cell (or gamete) contain only one copy of a gene for each trait. A particular gamete could have either the recessive or dominant allele for a given trait, but not both. -Consequently, one of the alleles that governed each trait is inherited from female parent and the other allele is inherited from male parent

9 Important conclusion from Mendel’s experiment:  Genes come in pairs -The parental strain carried two identical copies of a gene  diploid - During the production of gametes, these two copies are reduced to one, so that its carry a single copy of a gene  haploid - The hybrid between father factor and mother factor (zygot) would inherit two different alleles, called heterozygot


11 3. The Principle of Independent Assortment The alleles of different genes segregate or assort, independently of each other  it can be explained by dihybrid crosses Aim of dihybrid crosses  To see if the two seed trait (color and texture) are inherited independently Each trait is controled by a different gene segregating two alleles, and two genes are inherited independently


13 Application of Mendel’s Principles It can be used to predict the outcome of crosses, by 3 alternative methods: 1.The Punnet Square Method 2.The Forked-line Method 3.The Probability Method


15 Mendelian Principle in Human Genetics Application of Mendel’s principle in human genetics is limited The genetic analysis of human heredity depends on family records  pedigree


17 Pedigree Convention

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