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5-1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Powerpoint to accompany Genetics: From Genes to Genomes Third.

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Presentation on theme: "5-1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Powerpoint to accompany Genetics: From Genes to Genomes Third."— Presentation transcript:

1 5-1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Powerpoint to accompany Genetics: From Genes to Genomes Third Edition Hartwell ● Hood ● Goldberg ● Reynolds ● Silver ● Veres Chapter 5 Prepared by Malcolm D. Schug University of North Carolina Greensboro

2 5-2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Linkage, Recombination, and the Mapping of Genes on Chromosomes

3 5-3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Linkage and meiotic recombination Linkage and meiotic recombination Genes linked together on the same chromosome usually assort together. Genes linked together on the same chromosome usually assort together. Linked genes may become separated through recombination. Linked genes may become separated through recombination. Mapping Mapping The frequency with which genes become separated reflects the physical distance between them. The frequency with which genes become separated reflects the physical distance between them. Mitotic recombination Mitotic recombination Rarely, recombination occurs during meiosis. Rarely, recombination occurs during meiosis. In eukaryotes mitotic recombination produces genetic mosaics. In eukaryotes mitotic recombination produces genetic mosaics. Outline of Linkage, Recombination, and the Mapping of Genes on Chromosomes

4 5-4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Independent assortment Genes on different chromosomes A A a a B B b b a B A B a b A b Gametes

5 5-5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Linkage Two genes on same chromosome segregate together. A A a a B B b b Gametes ab A B A B ab

6 5-6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Crossing over and linkage Lead to separation of linked genes A A a a B B b b Gametes aB A B A b ab x Parental Recombinant

7 5-7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Some genes on the same chromosome assort together more often than not. In dihybrid crosses, departures from a 1:1:1:1 ratio of F1 gametes indicate that the two genes are on the same chromosome. In dihybrid crosses, departures from a 1:1:1:1 ratio of F1 gametes indicate that the two genes are on the same chromosome. How we determine if two genes are on the same chromosome can be demonstrated by the white and yellow genes on the X chromosome of Drosophila. How we determine if two genes are on the same chromosome can be demonstrated by the white and yellow genes on the X chromosome of Drosophila. yellow (y+) – yellow body color yellow (y+) – yellow body color white (w+) – white eye color white (w+) – white eye color

8 5-8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Linkage at a sex-linked gene Deviation from 1:1:1:1 ratio of phenotypes for males Draw traits on chromosomes and work through the cross Fig. 5.2

9 5-9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Designations of “parental” and “recombinant” relate to past history. Parental and recombinant classes are opposite of one another in these two crosses. Parental and recombinant classes are opposite of one another in these two crosses. Similar percentages of recombinant and parental types show that the frequency of recombination is independent of the arrangement of alleles. Similar percentages of recombinant and parental types show that the frequency of recombination is independent of the arrangement of alleles.

10 5-10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Genotypes of F1 female revealed by test cross Parental class outnumbers recombinant class demonstrating linkage. Linkage in an autosomal gene Fig. 5.4

11 5-11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Chi square test pinpoints the probability that ratios are evidence of linkage. Transmission of gametes is based on chance events. Transmission of gametes is based on chance events. Deviations from 1:1:1:1 ratios can represent chance events OR linkage. Deviations from 1:1:1:1 ratios can represent chance events OR linkage. Ratios alone will never allow you to determine if observed data are significantly different from predicted values. Ratios alone will never allow you to determine if observed data are significantly different from predicted values. The larger your sample, the closer your observed values are expected to match the predicted values. The larger your sample, the closer your observed values are expected to match the predicted values. Chi square test measures “goodness of fit” between observed and expected (predicted) results. Chi square test measures “goodness of fit” between observed and expected (predicted) results. Accounts for sample size, or the size of the experimental population Accounts for sample size, or the size of the experimental population

12 5-12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Applying the chi square test Framing a hypothesis Framing a hypothesis Null hypothesis – observed values are not different from the expected values Null hypothesis – observed values are not different from the expected values For linkage studies – no linkage is null hypothesis For linkage studies – no linkage is null hypothesis Expect a 1:1:1:1 ratio of gametes. Expect a 1:1:1:1 ratio of gametes. Alternative hypothesis – observed values are different from expected values Alternative hypothesis – observed values are different from expected values For linkage studies – genes are linked. For linkage studies – genes are linked. Expect significant deviation from 1:1:1:1 ratio. Expect significant deviation from 1:1:1:1 ratio.

13 5-13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Applying the chi square test to a linkage study Genotype Experiment 1 Experiment 2 A B 1734 a b 1428 A b 816 A B 1122 Total50100 ClassObserved/ExpectedObserved/ExpectedParentals Recombination

14 5-14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Chi Square – Experiment 1 & 2  2 =  (observed – expected) 2 number expected  2 =  (31 – 25) 2 + (19 – 25) = 2.88  2 =  (62 – 50) 2 + (38 – 50) = 5.76 Experiment 1 Experiment 2

15 5-15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Chi square table of critical values

16 5-16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display 1909 – Frans Janssens observed chiasmata, regions in which nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes cross over each other – Frans Janssens observed chiasmata, regions in which nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes cross over each other. Thomas Hunt Morgan suggested these were sites of chromosome breakage and change resulting in genetic recombination. Thomas Hunt Morgan suggested these were sites of chromosome breakage and change resulting in genetic recombination. Recombination results when crossing- over during meiosis separates linked genes.

17 5-17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Reciprocal exchanges between homologous chromosomes are the physical basis of recombination – Genetic recombination depends on the reciprocal exchange of parts between maternal and paternal chromosomes – Genetic recombination depends on the reciprocal exchange of parts between maternal and paternal chromosomes. Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock studied corn. Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock studied corn. Curtis Stern studied fruit flies. Curtis Stern studied fruit flies. Physical markers to keep track of specific chromosome parts Physical markers to keep track of specific chromosome parts Genetic markers were points of reference to determine if particular progeny were result of recombination. Genetic markers were points of reference to determine if particular progeny were result of recombination.

18 5-18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Genetic recombination between car and Bar genes on the Drosophila X chromosome Fig. 5.6

19 5-19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Chiasmata mark the sites of recombination. Fig. 5.7 a-c

20 5-20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Chiasmata mark the sites of recombination. Fig. 5.5 d-f

21 5-21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Recombination frequencies for pairs of genes reflect distance between them. Alfred H. Sturtevant – Percentage of recombination, or recombination frequency (RF) reflects the physical distance separating two genes. Alfred H. Sturtevant – Percentage of recombination, or recombination frequency (RF) reflects the physical distance separating two genes. 1 RF = 1 map unit (or 1 centiMorgan) 1 RF = 1 map unit (or 1 centiMorgan) Fig. 5.8

22 5-22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Summary of linkage and recombination Genes close together on the same chromosome are linked and do not segregate independently. Genes close together on the same chromosome are linked and do not segregate independently. Linked genes lead to a larger number of parental class than expected in double heterozygotes. Linked genes lead to a larger number of parental class than expected in double heterozygotes. Mechanism of recombination is crossing over. Mechanism of recombination is crossing over. Chiasmata are the visible signs of crossing over. Chiasmata are the visible signs of crossing over. The farther away genes are the greater the opportunity for chiasmata to form. The farther away genes are the greater the opportunity for chiasmata to form. Recombination frequencies reflect physical distance between genes. Recombination frequencies reflect physical distance between genes. Recombination frequencies between two genes vary from 0% to 50%. Recombination frequencies between two genes vary from 0% to 50%.

23 5-23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Mapping: Locating genes along a chromosome Two-point crosses: Comparisons help establish relative gene positions. Two-point crosses: Comparisons help establish relative gene positions. Genes are arranged in a line along a chromosome. Genes are arranged in a line along a chromosome. Fig. 5.9a

24 5-24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Mapping: Locating genes along a chromosome Genes are arranged in a line along a chromosome. Fig. 5.9 b-d

25 5-25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Limitations of two point crosses Difficult to determine gene order if two genes are close together Difficult to determine gene order if two genes are close together Actual distances between genes do not always add up. Actual distances between genes do not always add up. Pairwise crosses are time and labor consuming. Pairwise crosses are time and labor consuming.

26 5-26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Three Point Crosses: A faster more accurate method to map genes Fig. 5.10a

27 5-27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Three point cross pr must be in the middle because longest distance is between vg and b Fig. 5.10b

28 5-28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Analyzing the results of a three point cross Look at two genes at a time and compare to parental. Look at two genes at a time and compare to parental. Fig a,b

29 5-29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Analyzing the results of a three point cross Fig c,d

30 5-30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display X 100 = 17.7 m.u.vg – b distance X 100 = 12.3 m.u.vg – pr distance X 100 = 6.4 m.u.b – pr distance Correction for Double Crossovers X 100 = 6.4 m.u.vg – b distance

31 5-31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Interference: The number of double crossovers may be less than expected. Sometimes the number of observable double crossovers is less than expected if the two exchanges are independent. Sometimes the number of observable double crossovers is less than expected if the two exchanges are independent. Occurrence of one crossover reduces likelihood that another crossover will occur in adjacent parts of the chromosome. Occurrence of one crossover reduces likelihood that another crossover will occur in adjacent parts of the chromosome. Chromosomal interference – crossovers do not occur independently. Chromosomal interference – crossovers do not occur independently. Interference is not uniform among chromosomes or even within a chromosome. Interference is not uniform among chromosomes or even within a chromosome.

32 5-32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Measuring interference Coefficient of coincidence = ratio between actual frequency of dco and expected frequency of dco. Coefficient of coincidence = ratio between actual frequency of dco and expected frequency of dco. Interference = 1 – coefficient of coincidence. Interference = 1 – coefficient of coincidence. If interference = 0, observed and expected frequencies are equal. If interference = 1, no double crossovers can occur.

33 5-33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Double recombinants indicate order of three genes. Fi.g 5.11 a,d

34 5-34 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Summary of three point cross analysis Cross true breeding mutant with wild-type Cross true breeding mutant with wild-type Analyze F2 individuals (males if sex linked) Analyze F2 individuals (males if sex linked) Parental class – most frequent Parental class – most frequent Double crossovers – least frequent Double crossovers – least frequent Determine order of genes based on parentals and recombinants Determine order of genes based on parentals and recombinants Determine genetic distance between each pair of recombinants Determine genetic distance between each pair of recombinants Calculate coefficient of coincidence and interference Calculate coefficient of coincidence and interference

35 5-35 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Do Genetic and Physical maps correspond? Order of genes is correctly predicted by physical maps. Order of genes is correctly predicted by physical maps. Distance between genes is not always similar on physical maps. Distance between genes is not always similar on physical maps. Double, triple, and more crossovers Double, triple, and more crossovers Only 50% recombination frequency observable in a cross Only 50% recombination frequency observable in a cross Variation across chromosome in rate of recombination Variation across chromosome in rate of recombination Mapping functions compensate for inaccuracies, but are not often imprecise. Mapping functions compensate for inaccuracies, but are not often imprecise.

36 5-36 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Genes chained together by linkage relationships are known as linkage groups. Fig. 5.13

37 5-37 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Are genetic maps and physical maps correlated? The order of genes in a genetic map is the same as the order of those same genes along the DNA molecule of a chromosome. The order of genes in a genetic map is the same as the order of those same genes along the DNA molecule of a chromosome. The physical distance (amount of DNA separating genes) is not always the same as the genetic distance between genes. The physical distance (amount of DNA separating genes) is not always the same as the genetic distance between genes. Factors responsible for differences in physical and genetic map distances: Factors responsible for differences in physical and genetic map distances: Double, triple, and even more crossovers Double, triple, and even more crossovers 50% limit on recombination frequency observable in a cross 50% limit on recombination frequency observable in a cross Recombination frequency is not uniform across a chromosome. Recombination frequency is not uniform across a chromosome. Recombination hotspots Recombination hotspots Recombination deserts Recombination deserts

38 5-38 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Tetrad analysis in fungi Model organisms for understanding the mechanism of recombination because all four haploid products of meiosis are contained in ascus Model organisms for understanding the mechanism of recombination because all four haploid products of meiosis are contained in ascus Ascospores within ascus germinate into haploid individuals. Ascospores within ascus germinate into haploid individuals. Saccharaomyces cerevisiae – bakers yeast Saccharaomyces cerevisiae – bakers yeast Neurospora crassa – bread mold Neurospora crassa – bread mold

39 5-39 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Saccharaomyces cerevisiae life cycle Fig a

40 5-40 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Neurospora crassa life cycle Fig b

41 5-41 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Neurospora crassa tetrads

42 5-42 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Tetrads can be characterized by the number of parental and recombinant spores they contain. Fig a

43 5-43 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Fig b,c

44 5-44 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Fig d,e

45 5-45 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Linkage is demonstrated by PDs outnumbering NPDs. Fig. 5.16

46 5-46 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display How crossovers between linked genes generate different tetrads Fig a-c

47 5-47 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Fig d-f

48 5-48 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Calculating recombination frequency NPD + ½ T Total tetrads RF =  100

49 5-49 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Confirmation that recombination occurs at the four-strand stage A mistaken Model Recombination before four-strand stage not consistent with tetrads containing recombinant spores; would be NPDs instead of Ts Fig. 5.18

50 5-50 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Tetrad analysis demonstrates that recombination is reciprocal. In a cross between strains with different alleles at two genes, each tetrad contains and two of each type of recombinant In a cross between strains with different alleles at two genes, each tetrad contains and two of each type of recombinant

51 5-51 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Ordered tetrads allow mapping a gene in relation to the centromere. Fig. 5.20

52 5-52 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Segregation patterns in ordered asci Fig a

53 5-53 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Segregation patterns in ordered tetrads Fig b

54 5-54 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Calculating distance to centromere % SDS = SDS FDS + SDS  100

55 5-55 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Example of genetic mapping by ordered tetrad analysis Fig. 5.22

56 5-56 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Mitotic recombination can produce genetic mosaics. Mitotic recombination is rare. Mitotic recombination is rare. Initiated by Initiated by Mistakes in chromosome replication Mistakes in chromosome replication Chance exposure to radiation Chance exposure to radiation Curt Stern – observed “twin spots” in Drosophila – a form of genetic mosaicism. Curt Stern – observed “twin spots” in Drosophila – a form of genetic mosaicism. Animals contained tissues with different genotypes. Animals contained tissues with different genotypes.

57 5-57 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Mitotic crossing over between sn and centromere in Drosophila Fig a

58 5-58 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Essential Concepts Gene pairs that are close together on the same chromosome are linked because they are transmitted together more often than not. Gene pairs that are close together on the same chromosome are linked because they are transmitted together more often than not. The recombination frequency of pairs of genes indicate how often two genes are transmitted together. Gene pairs that assort independently exhibit a recombination frequency of 50%. The recombination frequency of pairs of genes indicate how often two genes are transmitted together. Gene pairs that assort independently exhibit a recombination frequency of 50%. Statistical analysis helps determine whether or not two genes assort independently. Statistical analysis helps determine whether or not two genes assort independently. The greater the physical distance between linked genes, the higher the recombination frequency. The greater the physical distance between linked genes, the higher the recombination frequency. Genetic maps are visual representations of relative recombination frequencies. Genetic maps are visual representations of relative recombination frequencies. Organisms that retain all the products of meiosis within an ascus reveal the relation between genetic recombination and segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. Organisms that retain all the products of meiosis within an ascus reveal the relation between genetic recombination and segregation of chromosomes during meiosis.

59 5-59 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Crossing over between sn and y gene Fig b

60 5-60 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Twin spots in Drosophila A form of genetic mosaicism – mistakes in chromosome replication or exposure to radiation that breaks DNA molecules lead to mitotic recombination Fig. 5.23

61 5-61 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Origin of twin spots and yellow spots in Drosophila Fig. 5.24a

62 5-62 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display Origin of twin spots and yellow spots in Drosophila Fig. 5.24b


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