Presentation on theme: "Some Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on the Movement of White Blood Cells Kalani Rathnabharathi Rong Zhou, Ashraf Aly Rong Zhou, Ashraf Aly Muhammad."— Presentation transcript:
Some Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on the Movement of White Blood Cells Kalani Rathnabharathi Rong Zhou, Ashraf Aly Rong Zhou, Ashraf Aly Muhammad Imran Cheema Deepak Anchala, Ryan.Laterza Frank Barnes University of Colorado
Outline of Talk 1.Background 2.Methods 3. Effects of Low Frequency Electric Fields 4. Effects of Low Frequency Magnetic Fields 5. Effects of RF Fields 6. Some Conclusions
Background 1. Concerns about Cancer and Power Lines 2. Concerns about Cell Phones 3. Possibility that the Immune System is activated by low fields behaving as a stress 4. Earlier Work with Lasers 5. Need for a low cost project
Why we focus on white blood cells White blood cells (WBC) have five different types. Normally, neutrophils account for 50-70%; Eosinophils account for less than 5%; Basophils represent less than 1%; Lymphocytes accounting for 25- 35%; Monocytes account for 3-9%. WBC play important rolls in the body’s immune system. All of them participate in defense of the body against infections and other foreign materials. It is an easy way to track WBC moving trail which is affected by some chemoattractants and their gradient. Eosinophil Neutrophil Monocyte Basophillymphocyte
White Blood Cells ( WBC) chemotaxis Definition Chemotaxis is the process by which white blood cells are attracted and move towards a chemo-attractant. Neutrophils are our body's first line of defense against bacterial infections. After leaving nearby blood vessels, these cells recognize chemicals produced by bacteria in a cut or scratch and migrate toward the chemoattractant with considerable speed.
Making the Slides Small Needle C-AMPSLIDE Micro Pipette Sample DropSlide Needle Push Cover slip Cover Slip Make C-AMP sample to known concentration (120 mM/L) Using a small needle, draw a tiny stripe of the C- AMP solution on the slide Place a small drop of the WBC sample on the slide Sample at least ½ cm away from the stripe Cover Slip placed on sample without covering the stripe Use a needle to push the slip over the stripe until it is fully covered. Apply Vaseline around slip to keep moist
Typical concentrations as a function of time and distance from the strip.
Velocity ( µm/min) 1 10 C 0 molar/l 10 -4 5×10 -3 10 -2 5×10 -2 10 -1 5×10 -1 15×10 -5 Note: when chemoattractant concentration is located between 8×10 -2 molar/l and 5×10 -1 molar/l, the WBC velocity can reach maximum. Chemotatic Velocities
What a Data Sample Looks Like Variables –How old blood is –Concentration of C-amp –Electric field strength –Temperature –Person Blood sample belongs to Cell Movement –Trace of cell movement –Distance moved –Time taken –Speeds with and without field Experiment 8 (overnight) C-AMP = 0.002g Serum = 0.05ml Elec field = 12V/mm 8 Temp = 37C Person : kalani 1 D1 = D2= 1mm PointsUpDownDistance Time (Mins) 1--2215.59016994474 2--34211.18033989 3--44211.18033989 4--5329.013878189 5--6205 6--7329.013878189 7--8125.590169944 56.56877604 Velocity 0.764442919 Velocity W/O field 3
Analysis Of Data Data analyzed in two categories: Speed & Direction Influence of fields on the speed of the cells Whether speed increases/ decreases with exposure compared with no exposure Whether the speed increases/ decreases with the increase of field strength Whether there is a change in speed when field is reversed/removed Influence of fields on the direction of motion of the cells Do cells change their direction of motion once exposed to the fields Do cells reverse their direction when the fields are reversed What happens when the fields are removed
Few Data Samples : Speed Field Strength (V/mm) Speed With (µm/min) Speed Without (µm/min) DC ELECTRIC FIELD 6.671.123.0 121.23.0 2023.2 REVERSE DIRECTION -122.653.0 -203.33.32 AC ELECTRIC FIELD ( V/mm ) 18.104.22.168 16.671.13.2 203.973.32
Data Analysis : Speed – AC Fields Speed increase with field Exponential rise of speed with respect to field Exponential rise is very sharp Speed much lower than without the fields for lower field strengths
Data Analysis : Speed – AC v DC Less speed variations in DC Fields Exponential rise in speed with AC fields much higher than with DC fields At lower field strengths both DC and AC speeds are similar
Data Analysis : Direction of Motion Without any exposure –75% move toward C-AMP –20% move against C-AMP –5% random motion
Changes in the direction of motion: DC Fields Often when exposed, cell changes its direction of motion Not necessary towards the field but to a different direction from its initial When field reversed, cell often changes its direction again When field removed, cell often continues in the same direction Sometimes when field is removed cell becomes more active than during exposure 1 10 19 36 C-AMP E 1 – 10 Without E Field 10 – 19 With E Field 19 – 36 Reversed E Field
Statistics for DC Fields With initial exposure –78% changed direction Reverse field –55% changed direction again –15% in reverse direction Remove field –30% became more active than during exposure
Statistics for AC Fields With initial exposure –67% cells moved in a semi-circular shape –30% cells stop after a while Remove field –58% moves randomly –45% became more active than during exposure
Observation For some experiments it was observed that once the direction of the DC field was reversed the cells also switched its direction of movement However this results was not always reproducible Results vary from person to person and from day to day Even if same person results vary with –Level of exercise –Foods taken –Illnesses
DC magnetic field effect on WBC mobility Experiment 1: Co=1.2E-1 molar/l; B=63.47µT; T=38° Chemoattractant gradient Results: 1-9 without DC magnetic field, v=4.58 m/min 9-14 with DC magnetic field, v=6.48 m/min 14-19 without DC magnetic field again, v=4.5 m/min Note: WBC move toward chemoattractant 1 9 14 19
B DC ( µ T) Velocity ( µm/min) w/o B DC with B DC w/o B DC again 154.114.934.69 22.895.026.835.81 25.333.223.682.79 31.2 3.89 6.85.42 35.734.655.134.87 39.23.04.403.37 52.275.786.652.06 63.474.586.484.50 71.433.244.382.85 78.45.657.346.15 101.433.034.342.13 DC magnetic field versus WBC velocity
Low frequency AC magnetic field effect on WBC mobility Experiment 1: Co=1.2E-1 molar/l; B=18.67µT; T=38°; f=60Hz Results: 1-8 without AC magnetic field, v=3.88 m/min 8-15 with AC magnetic field, v=2.88 m/min 15-19 without AC magnetic field again, v=2.12 m/min Note: The WBC move toward chemoattractant Chemoattractant gradient 1 8 15 19
B AC ( µ T) Velocity ( µm/min) w/o B AC with B AC w/o B AC again 22.214.171.124 (60Hz)5.87 6.75.28 (25Hz)5.94 6.23 5.77 (15Hz) 14.67 4.04 3.51 (60Hz)3.31 5.29 3.65 (60Hz) 18.675.844.13 (60Hz)2.16 3.882.88 (60Hz)2.12 20.76.905.04 (5Hz)4.36 2.372.15 (5Hz)3.3 AC magnetic field versus WBC velocity
Conclusion DC Magnetic field will Increase WBC velocity Make WBC move more randomly than without DC MF Change WBC direction of motion above 70µT AC magnetic field will Decrease WBC velocity Change WBC direction of motion below 25Hz
Results Without RF radiation With RF radiation Cell response time constant to RF radiation The cells act normally 2.5 minutes Av. Movement speed 2.4 μm/min 4.5 μm/min Av. Chemotactic index 0.3 0.8 Changing shape Faster Movement direction Sideward direction Upward direction
Preliminary Conclusion 1. Leukocytes speed increased rapidly by raising temperature between 35°- 40°C (decreased above 40°C ). 2. Under the RF radiation, the movement speed will rise by about 50%. 3. Significant change in cells movement after exposure to RF radiation. a.Cells movement direction, will be to the upward direction which is perpendicular to the C-Amp direction direction (with no radiation effect the cells moves sideward to the C-Amp direction ). No random movements (which usually happened without the RF radiation effect). b.Significant change in leukocytes behavior, include changing shape much faster (about double the changing speed) than the normal case (without applying RF radiation). The cells were shrinking, expanding, and rolling. c.We got the same results by using mobile phone or signal generator radiation. d.The cells moves to the upward direction under the effect of RF radiation in all tested temperatures Between 35° to 42°, and the speed of the cells still depends on the temperature.
Some Topics to Explore 1. Thresholds for Effects 2. What are the induced Current Flows? 3. How does the cell process the signaling information? Two Point? Integration over time? 4. Is there a communication system between leukocytes? IR?