Presentation on theme: "Screening for Female Genital Tract Malignancy. Screening Generally Is to seek about certain problem in certain high risk group."— Presentation transcript:
Screening for Female Genital Tract Malignancy
Screening Generally Is to seek about certain problem in certain high risk group.
Validity of Screening Test Validity of test determined by ability to correctly categories subjects to test- positive or test-negative
Validity of Screening Test cont... Sensitivity = ability of test to give a positive result when disease is present = a / a+c Specificity = ability of test to give a negative result when disease is absent = d / b+d
Predictive value is determined by sensitivity & specificity and also by the prevalence of preclinical diseas Positive predictive value = probability that a person with a positive test actually has the disease = a / a+b Negative predictive value = probability that a person with a negative test is truly disease-free= d / c+d Validity of Screening Test
When to Suspect Gynecologic Cancer Woman with: Ovarian mass/cyst Growth or ulcer of cervix, vagina or vulva Abdominal mass, increased abdominal girth Postcoital bleeding New onset of hematuria or renal failure New onset of bowel obstruction
When to Suspect Gynecologic Cancer cont…. Premenopausal woman with: Premenopausal woman with: Irregular menses Women older than 35 or with long history of irregular menses Postmenopausal woman with: Vaginal bleeding Abnormal vaginal discharge
Concept Prevention is better than cure. Cancer cervix Screening programs are in adulthood But ovarian cancer programs are still in relative infancy, why?
Phases of Tumorgenesis DysplasiaInvasive asymptomatic Invasive symptomatic Cancer cx. End. C. As cancer ovary Normal cells
Most Cancers Develop In The Unscreened And The Underscreened.
CRITERIA FOR SCREENING Disease: Must be serious enough Must be widespread enough Must be fairly reliably diagnosable Must be treatable Must be affordable Hopefully legally defensible
Criteria for Screening Test 1. Simple & quick 2. Capable of being performed by paramedics 3. Inexpensive 4. Acceptable to population 5. Accurate 6. Repeatable 7. Sensitive 8. Specific
Incidence of Gynecologic Cancers in Taiwanese Women Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Ovarian Cancer Uterine Cancer Incidence per 100,000 Source: Department of Health
Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer 500,000 new cases identified each year (1725 new cases in Taiwan,2008) 80% of the new cases occur in developing countries At least 200,000 women die of cervical cancer each year (657 women in Taiwan, 2008) Cervical cancer is the second/third most common cancer worldwide Magnitude of the Problem: -
Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer cont…. Most common female cancer in developing countries: leading cause of cancer death in women % cases seen at late incurable stages.
High risk patients: Cervix: High parity?!! Multiple partner Genital infections HPV & HSV II Smoking Sexual behavior of women’s partner Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer cont….
Pathogenesis of CIN HPV-related Changes Normal Cervix Low-Grade SIL (Atypia, CIN I) High-Grade SIL (CIN II, III/CIS) Invasive Cancer HPV Infection Cofactors High-Risk HPV (Types 16, 18, etc.) About 60% regress within 2-3 yrs About 15% progress within 3-4 yrs 30% - 70% progress within 10 yrs
Morphological Changes of Cervical Cancer
Prevention of Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a preventable disease Primary prevention: Education to reduce high risk sexual behaviour Measures to reduce/avoid exposure to HPV and other STIs Secondary prevention: Treatment of precancerous lesions before they progress to cervical cancer (implies practical screening test) Now : HPV vaccines.
Secondary Prevention of Ca.Cx. Key Point is to detect precancerous lesions – BY - A good screening method - PAP smear test is considered to be the gold standard – Has limitations ? Alternatives to Pap Smear – What are they?
Why screening for cervical cancer? 1. Is relatively common in unscreened women. 2. Has a relatively good prognosis if found early stage in its natural course of disease. 3.Has a characteristic natural course that is a slow progression through a premalignant stage.
Why screening for cervical cancer? 4.A premalignant stage can be detected by noninvasive means (the Pap smear, colposcope). 5.There are effective treatment modalities to eradicate premalignant lesions and early invasive cervical cancer.
Screening by Pap. Cx. Smear unscreened female have ten fold risk > screened female - Every sexually active female (3y after sex) - Specially, high risk group. - Annually up to the age of 70y - No need to extend screening > 70y if smear is N. - At each pregnancy - If new risk factors appear after 70y. d. Abnormal smear colposcopy c. When: b. To whom : a. Importance:
Limitations of Pap Smear Complex laboratory test Requires trained cytotechnician for reading and pathologist for review Continuous monitoring needed to maintain high-quality results Reports often take minimum 1-2 weeks to obtain Follow-up of women is difficult Usually available only in large cities in many countries
Alternatives to Pap smear Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep test). Automated pap smear (Computer reading). HPV DNA test in conjunction with pap smear. Colposcopy.
Liquid-based Pap Smear
Computer assisted Pap smear interpretation
HPV Testing and Cervical Cytology For Screening in Women Aged ≥ 30 Source: Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 304-9
COMPARISON BETWEEN SCREENING METHODS Source-Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH] 1997.
Introduction 1. Originally developed by Hans Hinselmann in the 1920s. 2. By the 1930s, colposcopy was widely used in Europe s, the colposcopy was accepted procedure for the verification of abnormal cytologic findings in the United States.
Supplies for colposcopy Acetic acid (3% to 5%)(vagina and cervix: 30 to 60 seconds; should be reapplied, as needed, after three to five minutes. ) (vulva: 3 to 5 minutes for the solution to permeate the cells and for the lesion to appear white. ) Lugol’s solution
Figure 1. A representative parous adolescent cervix showing the outer boundaries of several important areas of exocervical epithelium that correspond to the histological representations in Figure 2. External os (os), new squamocolumnar junction (nscj), area of cervical ectopy (ect) between nscj and external os, cervical transformation zone (ctz) between the original squamocolumnar junction (oscj) and nscj that includes an area of immature metaplasia (im), which is lightened by the application of 5% acetic acid. Adapted from.
Abnormal Transformation Zone Features suggestive of an ATZ ： Leukoplakia Acetowhite epithelium Erosion/Ulceration Internal margins Abnormal/atypical vessels
MEANING OF Acetowhite Not all acetowhite patches are cancer: Any of these epithelial changes can also become acetowhite: Healing or regenerating epithelium Congenital transformation zone Inflammation Immature squamous metaplasia
MEANING OF Acetowhite MEANING OF Acetowhite HPV infection CIN / CGIN Adenocarcinoma Invasive squamous cell carcinoma
EFFICACY For HSIL or cancer: sensitivity: 85%, specificity: 69% For any CIN: sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 48% It is important to note that the experience and training of the colposcopist are important factors in assuring reliable diagnostic results.
Take a rest !
Several risk factors: 1. Nulliparous women 2-3 times the risk of parous women 2. Infertility history, irregular mense, anovulatory cycles 3. Late menopause (> 52 y/o): 2.4 times for those < 49% 4. Obesity: overweight pounds: 3 times overweight > 50 pounds: 10 times (peripheral conversion of adrenally derived androstenedione by aromatization in fat to estrone) 5. PCOD -- Functioning ovarian tumors 6. HRT (E without P): 4-8 times 7. Tamoxifen for breast cancer: 2-3 times 8. DM: times Endometrial Cancer Risk Identification
PRE-INVASIVE LESIONS OF END. Malig. Potential Pathology Little or none Replacement of usual gland cell by cells having cilia, sq. cellsMetaplasia 1-3% over 15y Irregular glands, minor budding or out pouching Simle hyperplasia 3-4% over 13y Back to back glands, budding, papillary process, minor stratification Complex hyperplasia 23% over 10y Atypism + back to back + budding Atypical hyperplasia
Endometrial Cancer Screening Screening of unproven benefit Pap smear: inadequate Transvaginal sonography (TVS) examinations Helpful in evaluating vaginal bleeding Endometrial sampling Risks include discomfort, bleeding, infection, uterine perforation (rare)
Endometrial Cancer Screening - TVS N=250 Endometrial Stripe Thickness Diagnosis<5mm6-10mm mm >15mm Atrophy93%7% Hyperplasia58%42% Polyp53%47% Cancer18%41% Grigoriou: Maturitus 23:9-14,1996
Endometrial Cancer Screening - TVS Normal endometrial stripe
Endometrial Cancer Screening - TVS Thickened Endometrial Stripe: A case of endometrial cancer
Endometrial Cancer Screening - TVS Thickened Endometrial Stripe: A case of endometrial cancer
Endometrial Cancer Screening – EM sampling Endometrial Suction Curette
Endometrial Cancer Screening – EM sampling
Flow Chart for Endometerial Sampling
Ovarian Cancer Screening Risk identification: IncreaseDecrease AgeOCPs Family historyPregnancy Infertility/low parityTubal ligation Personal cancer history Breast-feeding
Ovarian Cancer Screening Benefit to screening is unproven Annual bimanual gynecologic examination Transvaginal ultrasound CA 125 serum levels Screening may result in more unnecessary surgeries than new ovarian cancers
Ovarian Cancer: Ultrasound Screening Studies Screening of 5,000 women 65 exploratory surgeries for every case of ovarian cancer Screening of 1,600 women with a family history 12 exploratory surgeries for every case of ovarian cancer Survival benefit unproven
Ovarian Cancer: CA125 Testing CA Is elevated in greater than 80% of advanced EOCs 2. Is elevated in 25-50% of Stage I cancers 3. Has poor specificity, especially in premenopausal women 4. NOT a screening test for the general population
Screening For Early Diagnosis Ovarian Malignancy Recommendations: 1- Comprehensive family history on all patients. 2- None or 1 family member Annual rectovaginal pelvic exam or more family members Genetic counseling (BRCA I, II mutation) Annual rectovaginal pelvic exam, CA125, transvaginal ultrasound. 4- Consider clinical trial participation.