Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

WHEREDONKEYS MAY GO The future of donkey breeds and breeding particularly in Africa.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "WHEREDONKEYS MAY GO The future of donkey breeds and breeding particularly in Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHEREDONKEYS MAY GO The future of donkey breeds and breeding particularly in Africa

2 Geneticists report that there is extremely low diversity within the whole population of donkeys. The ancestral types to ALL of today’s domestic donkeys both seem to have existed in Africa, where two sorts of wild ass still exist, the Nubian and the Somali ass, both Equus africanus africanus.

3 SO, WHAT BREEDS ARE THERE ? Linear measurements represent height at withers, unless otherwise specified; where necessary these have been converted into cm from US inches or ‘hands’ (1 hand = 4 inches; 1”( inch) = 2.54 cm, thus 1 hand = cm) Note that most of the ‘breeds’ reflected here are more strictly regarded as ‘types’, and they are very variable with regard to characteristics § Endangered or extinct ª Used solely or mostly for mule breeding

4 AFRICA AND THE NEAR EAST ( including Turkey but not Afghanistan ) From which it will be seen that very few clearly- defined breeds can be identified, except for the White Riding Ass historically bred for the nobility. The donkeys south of the Equator, i.e. in South Africa, were mostly imported from Europe.

5 AFRICA AND NEAR EAST USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) ARABIAN WHITE ASSLarge “refined, saddle type” DAMASCUS SADDLE ASS (see WHITE EGYPTIAN ASS) Known since Biblical times and carefully bred: “originally called the White Damascus Ass and was the mount of kings”. Now used for anything. EAST AFRICAN DONKEY 102cm or lessGrey, brown or reddish “poor confirmation, hardy” ISRAEL LOCAL BREED102cm cMGrey, black, brown “no careful breeding” MAASAI DONKEYSmalldun “well known belongs to Maasai tribe, used for pack etc.” MOROCCAN ASS91cm-122cmLight gray with “pronounced dark stripes and striping on legs”. MUSCAT DONKEY/ RIDING DONKEY 122cm cmSilver grey “which tends to look white against the black skin of ageing animals”.

6 AFRICA AND NEAR EAST (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) NATIVE ETHIOPIANSmalldun to black“heavy head, roman nose”pack animals NIGERIAN ASSSmalldun“ordinary” NUBIAN ASS122cmGrey, summer coat reddish; cross short or thin, no leg stripes Wild SOMALI ASS142.25cmGrey, summer coat yellowish. No cross, but very prominent leg stripes Wild SENNAR ASSª Pale grey Good for riding SOMALILAND DOMESTIC ASS 102cm “coarse, common”“ordinary work” SOUTH AFRICANsmallblack, dun, brown, light gray common

7 AFRICA AND NEAR EAST (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) SUDANESE RIDING DONKEY – SUB-BREED ATABAI 102cm-112cm middle sized Grey, white, reddish or dark brown, often without cross. SUDANESE RIDING DONKEY – SUB-BREED KASSALA 102cm-112cm larger Reddish, with cross SUDANESE RIDING DONKEY – SUB-BREED MASSAWA 102cm-112cmalmost white saddle asses TURKISH ASSSmallblack or dun“sturdy” SYRIAN WILD ASSUnder 102 cmNo shoulder stripe Wild – extinct [?] WHITE EGYPTIAN - BALADI of lower Egypt 122cm cmWhite or grey Known since Biblical times and carefully bred: “originally called the White Damascus Ass and was the mount of kings”. Now used for anything. WHITE EGYPTIAN - HASSAWI 122cm cmWhite or grey The common saddle animal WHITE EGYPTIAN - SAIDI of Upper Egypt 122cm cmWhite or grey Known since Biblical times and carefully bred: “originally called the White Damascus Ass and was the mount of kings”. Now used for anything.

8 ASIA Original Asian types, now extinct, have left little or no genetic trace.

9 ASIA USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) ASIAN DONKEY“Small, some so small to be of miniature status” dun“common” ASIAN DONKEYUnder 91 cm. Thick woolly coats“used for packing” CENTRAL ASIAN DONKEY Smallmostly dark colours“ hardy, coarse” KIANG142cm Shorter ears, rounder foot Wild – extinct [?] KULAN127cmDark, “very marked broad” backstripe Thick winter coatWild – extinct [?] KWANCHUNG~142.25cm, over 300 kg MAHRATTA“Very small” (61cm-91.5cm?)

10 ASIA (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) NORTH CHINA INDIGENOUS 132cmDark brown and reddish chestnut. PAKISTAN DONKEYSmalldun“common” PURGOSH ASS122cmReddish brown “excessive amount of long hair” “Some are used for sturdy saddle animals” SADDLE TYPE DONKEY – LARGER 112cm cmWhite or grey, no cross finer hair but bushy mane and tail, smaller head “saddle type” SADDLE TYPE DONKEY – SMALLER 81.25cm cm. Dark grey with cross“small body, large wide head, long ears” SHANTUNG ASSª132cmAlmost black with light points SUIMI122cm cm, over 200 kg

11 EUROPE (mostly southern Europe – although it is to be noted that countries still widely using donkeys, such as Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece, are not reflected here. It is not known if they have established breeds.)

12 EUROPE USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) AMIATA135cm-138cm.Mouse-grey with dark cross on back, and leg stripes. stronglively ANDALUSIAN/ ANDALUCIAN ASS 135cm-150cm (female) 145cm-158cm (male). White-grey or dapple-grey roan hair short and fine. Conformation “large and rangy …large, firm bones and good quality bone in the legs… Head is impressive, with roman noses, very large ears, all on a muscular neck” and is “carried well forward, giving the impression of energy”. “very graceful and fine movement and quiet disposition”.

13 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) ANE NORMAND110cm-125cm.Brown to mouse grey with dorsal stripe, underbelly grey/white, and no leg stripes. Originally for farm transport and seaside resorts. ASINARA80cm-100cm.“Most are pure white and often have blue eyes” (albino ?) popular for circuses. BAUDET(As POITOU ?)

14 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) CATALONIAN/ CATALAN ASS§ 135cm-148cm (female) 145cm-160cm (male) Glossy black to dark grape; silver white underbelly, tip of nose and around eyes, reddish or chestnut at edge of white, also sometimes on ears, & a short fringe of fine reddish hair around eyes. Conformation “gives it a graceful and long silhouette … a heavy head with a wide face and big, wide eyes …back … relatively long with strong muscular loins. The breast is wide and deep”. This breed shows a good deal of refinement about the bone and head”. great style and action, “an admirable temperament”, during the 19 th century many animals were exported around the world to improve donkey breeds and produce mules. COTENTIN115cm-130cm (female), 120cm-135cm (male) Ash grey, blue grey or dove grey with white underbelly, defined cross and sometimes leg stripes.

15 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) CYPRIOT/CYPRUS ASSª 11.75cm-122 cm dark“long legged, strong and well developed” GASCON OR PYRENEES DONKEYª 120cm and above Shiny black, shaded black, dark brown or chestnut. Almost white around eyes, base of nose, inside thigh and belly. Coat fluffy up to 2 years. In 19 th cent. used for milk production as well as draft, and described as trotting “just as quickly as a horse pulling two people in a two wheeled cart and which can work just as well as the heavy draught horses while costing a lot less to feed” and “credited as being the best adapted form of transport for rough terrain and an indispensable part of the agriculture of mountainous slopes”, but now only tourism.

16 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) GRAND NOIR DU BERRY 130cm (female) or 135cm- 145cm Single-colour bay to dark brown to black, except for grey/white muzzle and eye surround (each of which can be edged with red), belly, shoulders and inside thighs. No stripes or cross. Neck “strong … back straight…hindquarte rs either rounded or sloped... In silhouette, the donkey is very well proportioned.” Bred for barge-pulling. MAJORCA ASS§142.25cm cm (males) usually black “with correspondingly large bodies and bone”. Coat “more harsh than silky or glossy”. Head large with very long ears. Bred for draft but “with no real style or appearance in action but … very powerful with a rather sluggish disposition”

17 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) MALLORCA/ MALLORQUIN ASSª 125cm-135cm (female) 145cm- 155cm (male) Usually black to dark grape, white/grey shading around nostrils, under mouth, around eyes and on underbelly. Large head, broad hoof and smaller and finer boned than the CATALONIAN. MALTESE ASS147cm max.Black or dark brown “slender with good bone with very large, hard hooves.. but they have “style, well- balanced conformation and refinement”. “fiery disposition” MARTINA FRANCAª145cm-150cmBlack or dark bay with light points“well formed bone structure, short straight back, short croup and strong joints, heavy head with large long ears”. It is “known for its exceptional hardiness and strength” living in Apulia in conditions which have led “the breed to withstand extremes of temperature and produce very hardy foals”.

18 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) PANTELLERIA§ cmBlackish or dark bay Coat short and shiny “with an oily touch”. Head “small and thin” “a very graceful action and is … lively but nervous”. Widely sought after for circus use, they “had extraordinary stamina enabling them to maintain a speed of 14½ km per hour, pulling light loads for several hours. In the past races were held at which donkeys reached 24 km per hour.” POITOUª137cm-152.5cm and upwards Black or dark brown. No backstripe or cross. Extremely long silky coat, long mane and well-haired tail. Very large ears “full of hair, the head was coarse and Roman nosed with a drooping lower lip …huge feet, very heavy large bone and good muscling”.

19 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) PROVENCE DONKEY (also known as ARIES, CRAU, MIGRATION & SAVOIE) 120cm-133cm (male) and cm (female) Dove grey varying from light to dark with often a hint of red or brown, white around the eyes and muzzle. Dark, well-defined cross, forehead, ears and edge of eyes and muzzle “almost always have a brown/red tint”. Limbs may be marked with black zebra stripes “and there is often at least one diagonal stripe on the front hocks”. Hardy, with solid bone structure, head “well set on neck … The foot is quite large for a donkey. The back is straight, flanks are large and hindquarters solid.” Originally bred by shepherds for seasonal movement with flocks, “well able to carry heavy loads, with a docile temperament and good legs to cover the migratory routes … calm, patient, easy to saddle, to put to harness or to ride. He is very sure footed even on rough ground.”

20 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) RAGUSA/ RAGUSIAN OR SICILIANª§ 135cm-138 cm (female) 140cm-145cm (male), around 350 kg Dark bay with light points, lighter brown underside Head “strong and compact … well set on neck, good barrel and straight back, well proportioned legs with small, neat and supple joints,, small feet with strong, high hoofs for mountain travel.” “mostly mountain pack asses”. Used to breed war mules “fondly remembered for their patience and good temperament” and this breed noted for “its sure-footedness on any terrain …still used for riding” ROMAGNOLOªLarge SARDINIAN§85cm-115cm, kg Grey with white underbelly, and distinct cross on back “solid legs and is very robust”. Used by shepherds for carrying goods, produce and firewood and “known for its patience and gentle manner”, although in some parts of Sardinia “donkey meat was considered to be a particular delicacy”. Life expectancy years.

21 EUROPE (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) ZAMARANO- LEONESª§ ~141cm (female) 151cm-157cm (male) 350 kg Usually black or brown “do not have much style but are heavy boned and strong bodied” with “a large head and powerful neck with ears that tend to fall to the front or side”.

22 THE AMERICAS AND AUSTRALIA All of these originated in European breeds, and Australian donkeys are not differentiated from the US Standard ‘large’ donkey – more of a type than a breed.

23 SOUTH, CENTRAL, NORTH AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) AUSETANOªMedium sized “from Catalonian blood” AUSTRALIANSee US STANDARD LARGE DONKEY BRAZILIAN ASS122cm.Many colours“good conformation” CLASS B (OVERSIZED) MINIATURE 91.5cm-96.5cm(otherwise as US MINIATURE MEDITERRANEAN )

24 SOUTH, CENTRAL, NORTH AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) MAMMOTH JACKSTOCKª 137cm (female), cm (male, which must also measure 19cm around cannon bone below knee), heartgirth at least 147cm (female) 152.5cm (male) Mostly black, but many shades of red Coat fine and glossy, “head should be well shaped, carried alertly and well balanced. The ears should be long, well set and carried erect. The eye should be large and open and face straight with only a slight roman nose. The animal should have alertness and style in its manner and gaits”. Also: “The topline should be straight and strong. They should be short-coupled and smooth over the hips, carrying a long, well-muscled croup. The shoulders should be well sloped, chest wide and deep and the ribs deep and well-sprung to give depth and capacity to the middle. Heavy muscling should be evidenced … also through the chest, forearm and gaskin. The set and quality of the legs is important and should be as nearly correct as possible. The bone and joints should be large but clean and flat. The feet should be deep, round and large and show considerable evidence of good wearing qualities.”

25 SOUTH, CENTRAL, NORTH AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) NORTHEASTERN ASSª§ PEGA ASS white or light grey, some cream body fine and muscular, limbs long, strong bones, sloping pasterns, “Graceful … a gaited Ass”. SPOTTED ASS ‘Pinto’ pattern, including blaze and sock, overlaying any of the base colours, and “looks to the eye as if the donkey were a white animal with dark spots” but can also be ‘tyger-spotted’ with light spots on dark.

26 SOUTH, CENTRAL, NORTH AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA (contd) USUAL NAMESACCEPTED SIZE (height at withers etc) ACCEPTED COLOUR/S & MARKINGS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (physical) OTHER CHARACTERISTICS (behavioural, incl.use) US MINIATURE MEDITERRANEAN (developed in US from Sicilian and Sardinian stock) cm or less Full range of donkey colours, with backstripe and cross Conformation as for draft: “leg bones large in relation to size, ribs well sprung, chest wide, heart girth deep”. Life expectancy years. US STANDARD101.6cm- 122cm “a rainbow of colours” “a variety of conformation” US STANDARD LARGE 122cm-137cm (female) cm (male) Any colourAny body type, “from the lighter saddle-type to the heavier Mammoth” US STANDARD SMALL 91.5cm cm

27 Both adult donkeys, 152cm (Mammoth) meets 86cm (Miniature) THE VARIABILITY OF SIZE

28 THE VARIABILITY OF COAT LENGTH A breed not even mentioned – white donkeys in Austria

29 COAT LENGTH (INCLUDING LONG MANE) AND COLOUR And this one was bred and lived in a hot climate

30 ALL THE STRIPES ONE CAN THINK OF ! No, no zebra ancestry !

31 NOT ONLY STRIPES AND BELLY COLOURS, AS WELL AS EYE RINGS AND PALE MUZZLE ARE COMMON, but smaller marks can often be seen, especially on African donkeys. In the literature, only the ‘collar button’ gets mentioned. (Some of these are names I myself have allocated)

32 In Africa, variations even among related donkeys (as these are) can be suggestive of very diverse ancestry

33 That genetic study had some hard-working contributors !

34 Donkeys are expected to work, and work hard – that is what they are bred for,first and foremost

35 SO … WHAT WORK SHOULD THEY BE BRED FOR ?

36 AND WHAT CHARACTERISTICS WILL BE NEEDED ?

37 CULTIVATION PHYSICAL TRAITS: Strength, low consumption of food and water BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: Obedience, teamwork, ability to walk in straight line

38 BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: Obedience, teamwork, ability to walk in straight line, calmness in the face of other traffic, patience to remain stationery in harness for long periods PHYSICAL TRAITS: StrengthPULLINGCARTS

39 MOUNTAINEERING PHYSICAL TRAITS: Strength, small size BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: Surefootedness, ability to handle gravity shifts in load, recognition of pathways, realistic perception of dangers, ability to turn or reverse within narrow confines

40 ON-FARM TASKS PHYSICAL TRAITS: Strength, low consumption of food and water BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: Obedience, calmness in the face of other traffic, patience to remain tethered or harnessed for long periods.

41 FETCHING WATER PHYSICAL TRAITS: Strength BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: Obedience, calmness in the face of other traffic, patience to remain tethered or harnessed for long periods (in short, as for pulling carts).

42 TOURISM PHYSICAL TRAITS: Strength, small size, low consumption of food and water BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: As for both cart-pulling and mountaineering, but also calmness in the presence of strange humans, especially children

43 THERAPY BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: Calmness in the presence of strange humans, especially children

44 LITERACY PHYSICAL TRAITS: Strength BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: As for both cart-pulling and mountaineering, but also calmness in the presence of strange humans, especially children BOXES LOADED WITH BOOKS OR IN A CART, COMPLETE WITH VIDEOS AND PLAYER

45 DEALING WITH OTHER ANIMALS PHYSICAL TRAITS: Speed ? Large size ? Resistance to tick infestation BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS: Not too much aggressiveness, calmness

46 PERHAPS WE JUST EXPECT TOO MUCH ! One thing donkeys cannot do (yet) is fly

47 SO WHERE MAY DONKEYS GO ?

48 Decorative and showy ? (Then maybe we should indeed think of breeds)

49 Or just very useful ?

50 Whatever we need, it is usually DONKEYS and not particular breeds that provide it

51 Why interfere with something already so good ?

52 And has apparently been that way for more than 4000 years

53   All the things your donkeys can do ·  Problems to be solved with donkeys ·  How to make equipment for donkeys ·  How to look after your donkeys ·  What your donkeys are worth ·  How to earn money with your donkeys ·  FACILITATION AND CONSULTANCY SERVICES Peta A. Jones, MSc PhD PO Box 414 TSHITANDANI/MAKHADO 0920 South Africa cell tel/fax


Download ppt "WHEREDONKEYS MAY GO The future of donkey breeds and breeding particularly in Africa."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google