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Tracking rust diseases of wheat for better production and disease management Berhanu M. Andarge Graduate Student.

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Presentation on theme: "Tracking rust diseases of wheat for better production and disease management Berhanu M. Andarge Graduate Student."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tracking rust diseases of wheat for better production and disease management Berhanu M. Andarge Graduate Student

2 Introduction Wheat is one of the major food crop grown in the world next to rice, and maize. It grows in every continent. Wheat is one of the major food crop grown in the world next to rice, and maize. It grows in every continent. In , 225 Million hectares of land were allocated for wheat and annually 684 million tones of grain produced (FAO, 2010). In , 225 Million hectares of land were allocated for wheat and annually 684 million tones of grain produced (FAO, 2010). Of the cultivated wheat area, half is located in less developed countries (Reynolds and Borlaug, 2006). Of the cultivated wheat area, half is located in less developed countries (Reynolds and Borlaug, 2006). In regions such as North Africa, Turkey, and Central Asia, wheat provides half of total dietary calories. In regions such as North Africa, Turkey, and Central Asia, wheat provides half of total dietary calories.

3 Into. Cont. Yield progress have been steady increases in productivity since the green revolution, Yield progress have been steady increases in productivity since the green revolution, –due to genetic improvements in yield potential, resistance to diseases, adaptation to abiotic stresses, and better agronomic practices Yield progress has been challenged by different factors every year. Yield progress has been challenged by different factors every year. Of those factor Rust diseases caused by fungal pathogens are considered to be one of the major wheat production constraints world wide. Of those factor Rust diseases caused by fungal pathogens are considered to be one of the major wheat production constraints world wide. The most common rusts diseases are The most common rusts diseases are –Stem rust or black rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), –Stripe or yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis tritici) and –Leaf or brown rust (P. recondita).

4 Intro. Cont. Though their optimum environmental conditions are slightly different, these rusts are present globally, wherever wheat is grown. Though their optimum environmental conditions are slightly different, these rusts are present globally, wherever wheat is grown. They are often present together in one plant, during different growth stages of wheat in different severities. They are often present together in one plant, during different growth stages of wheat in different severities. Leaf RustStem Rust Strip rust

5 Since the inception of green revolution majority of world wheat production was backed by resistance genes Since the inception of green revolution majority of world wheat production was backed by resistance genes Therefore, for the last 60 years no major epidemics was recorded world wide specially from stem rust Therefore, for the last 60 years no major epidemics was recorded world wide specially from stem rust but in 1999 majority of the stem rust resistant genes, served as a guard for wheat production, were known to be susceptible because of the occurrence of new stem rust races but in 1999 majority of the stem rust resistant genes, served as a guard for wheat production, were known to be susceptible because of the occurrence of new stem rust races

6 Millions of stem rust spores multiplied in a susceptible plant and transported to other places by wind Unique feature of rust (air born) diseases Rusts, especially the stem and stripe rusts are considered as the most important biotic constraint to sustainable wheat production in developing countries. Rusts, especially the stem and stripe rusts are considered as the most important biotic constraint to sustainable wheat production in developing countries. –This is due to the ability of the pathogen to evolve rapidly into new races and to migrate long distances by wind.

7 The world has experienced in the 1980’s and 1990’s a series of major epidemics of wheat yellow rust. The world has experienced in the 1980’s and 1990’s a series of major epidemics of wheat yellow rust. –Unless the field is protected by resistant variety or appropriate fungicide the crop loss would be reach to 100%. –healthy crop only 3 weeks from harvest could be reduced to nothing by stem rust. Picture taken from stem rust wheat Dr.

8 Current situation of rust disease In recent years, leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust have been the most damaging fungal diseases of wheat, causing significant yield losses worldwide (Singh et al. 2008). In recent years, leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust have been the most damaging fungal diseases of wheat, causing significant yield losses worldwide (Singh et al. 2008). –Of all stem rust is the most feared disease of wheat cause severe devastation in all continent where wheat is growing. In 1999 high severities of stem rust were observed in Uganda on previously stem rust resistant wheat lines In 1999 high severities of stem rust were observed in Uganda on previously stem rust resistant wheat lines This new race, labeled “Pgt-Ug99”, subsequently shown to attack the stem rust resistance genes, which were previously effective. This new race, labeled “Pgt-Ug99”, subsequently shown to attack the stem rust resistance genes, which were previously effective. Since then, similar virulences have been confirmed in Since then, similar virulences have been confirmed in –Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Iran, indicating that this new race, or its derivatives, has spread within North Africa and into the Middle East.

9 Importance of tracking rust diseases An integrated An integrated –research, communication and outreach approach is needed to combat the threat of rust disease of wheat production. –will guide the evaluation of wheat germplasm –help to develop diagnostic technologies and disease management systems, –accelerate the development of new resistant varieties. – will also outline an effective monitoring, reporting and communication network. Strategic deployment and use of these resources and technologies to minimize the impact of new and emerging races of stem rust.

10 Application of GPS and GIS on tracking the rust diseases A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer program designed to store, manipulate, analyze, and display data in a geographic context. A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer program designed to store, manipulate, analyze, and display data in a geographic context. Wheat researchers can take the advantage of sophisticated computer software programs to display and analyze spatial data. Wheat researchers can take the advantage of sophisticated computer software programs to display and analyze spatial data. GIS capabilities are ideal for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, and in outbreak investigation and response. Through GIS capabilities are ideal for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, and in outbreak investigation and response. Through –optimize data collection and management; –strengthen data analysis; –strengthen outbreak infrastructure and support;

11 Application of GPS and GIS on tracking the rust diseases cont. –map epidemic dynamics in near real-time; –Quickly plan and target response; –Rapidly communicate information; –monitor changes in disease over time; –Aid emergency preparedness by mapping surveillance data in near-real time for early outbreak detection.

12 Rust Maper Can provide timely, reliable information to wheat researchers and decision makers in risk countries. Can provide timely, reliable information to wheat researchers and decision makers in risk countries. It was developed by the CIMMYT GIS unit in 2010 by using the popular satellite-image virtue globe “Google Earth” It was developed by the CIMMYT GIS unit in 2010 by using the popular satellite-image virtue globe “Google Earth” It is a program that tracks It is a program that tracks –the stem rust occurrence, –models, and potential dispersion paths for the pathogen and –summarizes information on wheat production and susceptibility for countries in stem rust pathways. It displays current rust survey sites, near real-time wind trajectories from sites reporting stem rust (all races, not only Ug99), major wheat growing areas and country wheat statistics. It displays current rust survey sites, near real-time wind trajectories from sites reporting stem rust (all races, not only Ug99), major wheat growing areas and country wheat statistics. stem-rustmapper/en/ stem-rustmapper/en/ stem-rustmapper/en/ stem-rustmapper/en/

13 Thank you


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