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Page 1 - © Richard L. Goldman Networking Topology ©Richard L. Goldman January 8, 2002
Page 2 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 1 Devices The Physical Layer Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) –Cables and other transmission media –NIC –Transceivers –Repeaters –Hub –MAU
Page 3 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) NICs and Cat. 5 Crossover Cable Each computer needs a NIC, Network Interface Card, to physically join a network. This example shows two computers connected with a Cat. 5 crossover cable.
Page 4 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) NICs and Thinnet This example shows two computers connected with a Thinnet, coaxial cable. Terminators are added to complete the circuit.
Page 5 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) NICs, Thicknet, and Transceivers This example shows two computers connected with a Thicknet coaxial cable. Vampire Clamp Transceiver Drop Cable AUI connector – Attachment Unit Interface
Page 6 - © Richard L. Goldman OSI Model Software 7 - Application 6 - Presentation 5- Session 4 - Transport 3 - Network 2 – Data Link 1 - Physical Computer Program Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) OSI Software Layers passing Data through the Hardware OSI Model Software 7 - Application 6 - Presentation 5- Session 4 - Transport 3 - Network 2 – Data Link 1 - Physical Computer Program Data is passed from the User Application down through each layer of the OSI model until reaches the hardware. It is then transmitted to the other computer. Then back up to the receiving User Application.
Page 7 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) Repeater If the distances between the computers exceed the maximum specified length, a repeater may be used to extend the length of the run.
Page 8 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) Hub Hubs forward data from one computer to all other computer connected to the hub (broadcast). Hubs function as a multiport repeater by amplifying the signal which can also extends the maximum distance between computes.
Page 9 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) MAU – Multistation Access Unit MAU forwards data from one computer to another in a ring until it reaches the computer it is addressed to. MAUs are used to connect computers in a Token Ring network.
Page 10 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 2 Devices The Data Link Layer Switches are capable of directing network traffic only to the computer it is addressed to. –Also Known As Switching Hubs Layer 1 Switches Bridges are used to pass traffic from one subnet to another while restricting local traffic to its own subnet.
Page 11 - © Richard L. Goldman Layer 2 Devices (Data Link Layer) Switch OSI Model Software 7 - Application 6 - Presentation 5- Session 4 - Transport 3 - Network 2 – Data Link 1 - Physical A switch uses a MAC Address Table to route traffic to its proper destination. The MAC address table is maintained in the MAC sublayer of the Data Link Layer.
Page 12 - © Richard L. Goldman ApplicationInterface with network services applications Gateways PresentationConverts data for transmission SessionEstablishes, maintains, & coordinates communication TransportFlow Control Sequencing NetworkRouting Routers Brouters Layer 3 Switch Data LinkCreates data frames – divides data into small pieces Adds Destination & source addresses Adds control code & error check code Bridges Switches Layer 2 Switch Switching Hub PhysicalHardware that sends and receives electrical signals on the network Repeaters Hubs and MAUs Cables, Connector, NIC, etc.
Page 13 - © Richard L. Goldman Common Network Devices Layer 5-7 (Application, Presentation, & Session Layers) –Gateway Layer 3 Devices (Network Layer) –Router –Brouter –Layer 3 Switch Layer 2 Devices (Data Link Layer) –Switch (AKA, Switching Hub, or Layer 2 Switch) –Bridge Layer 1 Devices (Physical Layer) –Cables and other network media –NIC –Transceivers –Repeaters –Hub –MAU
Page 14 - © Richard L. Goldman Ethernet Topology Standards StandardNameCableSpeedDistanceIEEE Spec 10BaseTEthernetUTP/STP10Mbs100m Base2ThinnetCoax10Mbs185m Base5ThicknetCoax10Mbs500m BaseFEthernet over Fiber Fiber10Mbs500m – 2000m 100BaseTXFast EthernetUTP/STP-Cat 5 (uses 2 pair) 100Mbs (Full Duplex) 100m802.3u 100BaseT4Fast EthernetUTP/STP-Cat 3 (uses 4 pair) 100Mbs (Half Duplex) 100m BaseFXFast Ethernet over Fiber Fiber100Mbs2000m 100BaseVG“Any LAN” (Voice Grade) UTP/STP-Cat 3 UTP/STP-Cat 5100Mbs 100m 213m BaseXGigabit Ethernet UTP/STP-Cat 5 or Fiber 1000Mb/s802.3z
Page 15 - © Richard L. Goldman Terminating a Cat-5 Cable with RJ-45 Connector
Page 16 - © Richard L. Goldman 568-A A Category 5 cable may be terminated with RJ-45 connectors using either 568-A or 568-B wiring standards. Either standard works equally well. A standard cable will have the same type of wiring at each end of the cable. A crossover cable will have 568-A at one end and 568-B at the other end.
Page 17 - © Richard L. Goldman Making a 568-B Patch Cable When making a patch cable (a cable that will be handled) use stranded wire cable and RJ-45 connectors designed for stranded wire. When installing permanent cabling you may use solid wire cable with RJ-45 connectors designed for solid wire. Use plenum rated cable or metal conduit per code.
Page 18 - © Richard L. Goldman Strip cable jacket back about ¾ of an inch. Pair # 1 - Blue 2 - Orange 3 - Green 4 - Brown
Page 19 - © Richard L. Goldman Arrange wires in 568-B order. Orange Stripe Orange Solid Green Stripe Blue Solid Blue Stripe Green Solid Brown Stripe Brown Solid
Page 20 - © Richard L. Goldman Pin # Trim wires squarely at ½ inch. Align connector with cable. ½ in.
Page 21 - © Richard L. Goldman Insert cable into connector. Check to make sure all wires are flush and in proper order Check to make sure jacket is fully inserted and is in position to be gripped by the cable retainer. Cable Retainer
Page 22 - © Richard L. Goldman 568-A Wiring RJ-45 Connector
Page 23 - © Richard L. Goldman 568-A Wiring RJ-45 Connector
Page 24 - © Richard L. Goldman Crossover Cable 568-B 568-A A crossover cable is made by configuring one end of a cable as 568-A and the other end of the cable as 568-B. Green Stripe Green Solid Orange Stripe Blue Solid Blue Stripe Orange Solid Brown Stripe Brown Solid Orange Stripe Orange Solid Green Stripe Blue Solid Blue Stripe Green Solid Brown Stripe Brown Solid
Page 1 - © Richard L. Goldman Networking The OSI Model ©Richard L. Goldman March 29, 2001.
Page 1 - © Richard L. Goldman RJ-45 Termination ©Richard L. Goldman June17, 2002.
Page 1 - © Richard L. Goldman Networking Topology ©Richard L. Goldman January 8, 2002.
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