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Anatomy: Trachea Chris van ZylKHC. 2 Trachea: Landmarks  Begins at lower border of cricoid cartilage / C6  Extends to Carina  Right of the midline.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy: Trachea Chris van ZylKHC. 2 Trachea: Landmarks  Begins at lower border of cricoid cartilage / C6  Extends to Carina  Right of the midline."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy: Trachea Chris van ZylKHC

2 2 Trachea: Landmarks  Begins at lower border of cricoid cartilage / C6  Extends to Carina  Right of the midline  Sternal angle  T4 on inspiration / T6 on expiration  Lined by ciliated columnar epithelium  15 cm long / 2cm in diameter  15 – 20 incomplete rings of cartilage  Bridged post. by trachealis muscle

3 3 Trachea

4 4  Variable shape  Usually round, oval, oval with flattened post. border  Square  Inverted pear  Horseshoe  Very pliable in children  May deviate to the right at almost 90° in normal expiratory film.

5 5 Trachea: Carina  Lies at T5 level  T4 on expiration  T6 on inspiration  Normal angle: 65°  20° to right of midline  40° to left of midline  Angle slightly larger + symmetrical in children  Angle increases by 10° - 15° in recumbency

6 6 Relations: Cervical  Anterior:  Isthmus anterior to 2nd, 3rd, 4th rings  Inferior thyroid veins  Strap muscles: Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid  Posterior:  Oesophagus, recurrent laryngeal nerves  Lateral:  Lobes of thyroid  Common carotid artery

7 7 Relations: Thoracic  Anterior:  Brachiocephalic a.  Left common carotid a.  Left brachiocephalic v.

8 8 Relations: Thoracic  Posterior:  Oesophagus  Left recurrent laryngeal n.

9 9 Relations: Thoracic  Left lateral:  Arch of the aorta  Left common carotid  Left subclavian arteries  Right lateral:  Right vagus nerve  Arch of the azygos vein  Pleura

10 10 Blood supply  Upper trachea  Inferior thyroid artery  Lower part  Branches of the bronchial artery  Venous drainage  Inferior thyroid venous plexus

11 11 Right Paratracheal Stripe  Interface between trachea and right upper lobe  Max normal thickness 4 mm

12 12 Left Paratracheal Stripe  Left upper lobe and trachea  Less common (only on 21 %- 31% of films

13 13 Posterior Tracheal Stripe  Interface between trachea and right lung  Normal max diameter 2.5 mm

14 14 Tracheoesophageal Stripe  Interface between esophagus and trachea  Normal max diameter 5.5 mm

15 15 References  Lines and Stripes: Where Did They Go?  Jerry M. Gibbs, Chitra A. Chandrasekhar, Emma C. Furgasson,  Sandra A. A. Oldham  Applied Radiological Anatomy  Paul Butler, Adam W. M. Mitchell, Harold Ellis  Anatomy for Diagnostic Imaging  Stephanie Ryan, Michelle McNicholas, Stephen Eustace  Third Edition


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