Presentation on theme: "The Geomagnetic Field Problem The mechanism for generating the geomagnetic field remains one of the central unsolved problems in geoscience. National (U.S.)"— Presentation transcript:
The Geomagnetic Field Problem The mechanism for generating the geomagnetic field remains one of the central unsolved problems in geoscience. National (U.S.) Geomagnetic Initiative (NGI) Geodynamics Committee, 1993 statement.
Z Space - Excess Mass Stress Tectonics - EMST - and Magnetism In Z Space and EMST, Magnetism is Concentration of Space and Electricity is Rarefaction of Space and they both form an Electromagnetic Wave in which Electricity and Magnetism are at Right Angles to Each Other and 90 Out of Phase.
In conventional plate tectonics and Earth expansion literature the lithosphere is produced in mid-ocean ridges, and magnetic anomalies form stripes parallel to them. But, the oceanic magnetic anomaly surface traces are the result of the measurement “moving average filter" applied to a random and a finer variation not in one-to-one correspondence with a historical sequence of geomagnetic reversals. Thus the intensity traces/stripes, (thought to be a few tens of kilometres wide), are traces produced by the measurement process acting upon randomly generated intensity variation of primarily finer grain, and the correlations observed between widely separated observed traces are impressively better than are the correlations between randomly generated and averaged traces (Smith & Smith, 1993). Generated Stripe Pattern of Magnetic Anomalies Maxlow, 2001
The random-spot pattern of crustal magnetic anomalies caused by regional variations in the bulk magnetic properties of the Earth's crust. NASA’s Earth- orbiting satellite, Magsat, made the observations from late 1979 to mid 1980 at approximately 400 km altitude. Warm colors (reds) indicate the strongest magnetizations while cool colors (blues) the weakest (Purucker et al., 1997). The strongest anomalies-few nT, are observed in continental areas, and the ratio of crustal anomalies to main magnetic ‘field’ is in the range of 10 -4, similar to the ratio of gravity anomalies to the Earth’s gravity ‘field’. Observed Spot Pattern of Magnetic Anomalies
Consecutive waveform data points are represented by "y“, and a smoothing factor, e.g., of 3 was applied, which means 3 consecutive data points from the original waveform are added, their sum divided by 3, and then this quotient is plotted as the first data point of a generated waveform and so on, until the end of the data is reached. This special "feathering" technique averages the beginning and end data points of the original wave-form to ensure that the generated waveform contains the same number of data points as the original. Note the overlap that exists in the moving average calculations, and the reason for applying a moving average filter is to "smooth out" the high and low aberrations and reveal a more representative intermediate waveform value. (M. R. Weimer, DATAQ Instruments, Inc.). The Moving Average Filter
The intensity measurements are made from surface vessels which travel several kilometres above the ocean floor, and the basement rock. The intensity measured at any surface point is thus actually the (weighted) average effect of the intensities in the basement rock for a horizontal distance of several times the vertical distance to the measuring device. Thus the observed oceanic magnetic anomaly surface traces are the result of the measurement "filter" applied to a random and a finer variation not in one-to-one correspondence with a historical sequence of geomagnetic reversals. The intensity traces/stripes, (thought to be a few tens of kilometres wide), are traces produced by the measurement process acting upon randomly generated intensity variation of primarily finer grain, and the correlations observed between widely separated observed traces are impressively better than are the correlations between randomly generated and averaged traces (Smith & Smith, 1993). The Stripe Pattern Artifact
The confirmation of the generated stripe pattern of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magnetic anomalies could come from a direct examination of the magnetic orientation of the oceanic basement rock beneath the sedimentary layers. But, such information is not currently available. The Deep Sea Drilling Project has drilled the ocean floor in 624 sites but generally these holes are confined to the sedimentary layers (see Hall and Robinson 1979, Hall and Ryall 1977, Smith 1985, and Smith and Banerjee 1986). Only 3 or 4 holes have penetrated the basement to any great degree. These few holes have shown a wide scatter of magnetic inclinations within each hole and have not demonstrated lateral continuity (Smith & Smith, 1993). Deep Sea Drilling Project
Crustal Fragmentation and Excess Mass The lithoshpere is not created in mid- ocean ridges, and therefore Earth expansion cannot be attributed to this process. The primary mechanism for crustal extension and accretion during Earth expansion, starts with crustal stretching (a), is continued with crustal rifting (b), and ends with crustal fragmentation and the emplacement of Excess Mass (c). In each figure continental crust is shown as green, mantle as pink shading, and intracratonic basin sedimentation shown as horizontal stripes. Regarding age dating of the sea floor sediments they don't use the sediments, they use the microfossils deposited on the sea floor as they die and rain down on the sediments. They also use the volcanic basement rocks that the sediments sit on as an added method. Maxlow, 2001 a b c
Oceanic Plateaus Ben-Avraham et al., 1981; Storetvedt, 1997. Some of the oceanic plateaus, for example the Kerguelen-Gaussberg and Ontong-Java Plateau are intermediate continental-oceanic crust formations; the Chatham and the Galapagos Rise are continental crust formations, thus giving merit to the crustal fragmentation and emplacement of excess mass erratically between them.
Conclusion Therefore, the Stripe Pattern of Magnetic Anomalies is an Experimental Artifact.