Presentation on theme: "Japan and the “Asian Tigers” C34 secs 1&3 Join me on page 858 EQ: How does Japan and other small Asian recover from the destruction of WWII and other wars?"— Presentation transcript:
Japan and the “Asian Tigers” C34 secs 1&3 Join me on page 858 EQ: How does Japan and other small Asian recover from the destruction of WWII and other wars? How does Japan and the West influence (and other foreign influence) small East Asian nations?
In 1945, Japan lay in ruins… What factors allowed Japan to recover and produce an economic miracle? 1. Simple growth with a lil help - Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At first, the nation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making steel, and then to high technology…with a lil US help (and occupation) these industries flourished 2. Reliance on the past - While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had successfully industrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly build efficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology. 3. Emphasis on Education - Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force. 4. No Wasting of $$$ - Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings gave banks the capital to invest in industrial growth. 5. Bye Bye Military - Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining a large military force…they no longer have any kind of real military, just a civil (self) defense force
Economic Successes Between 1950 and 1970, Japan focused on technological products for export The zaibatsu companies that existed pre-war converted their war time construction strategies into producing consumer products Ex. Mitsubishi, they made planes before WWII, they converted to making cars after…Suzuki and Toyota made looms for fabric before WWII, trucks and jeeps during, then switched to consumer automobiles after…Nintendo made playing cards before WWII then switched to electronics Many of these companies follow a model of business known as kieretsu…it is a process by which Japanese companies are linked together as monopolies As a result, Japan found a favorable trade balance with direct competition with the US in the areas of tech and automobile manufacturing by the 1980s…“All the best stuff’s made in Japan” By the 1990s, slowdown occurred as the “bubble burst”…Japan was unable to continue extensive foreign investment and was forced to focus on maintaining its status as a tech/auto superpower
Political Changes As a result of WWII, the emperor of Japan was stripped of all political power…Japan was transformed into a Constitutional Monarchy…a Prime Minister became the official head of state The Diet (parliament) was given all the legislative power under the new constitution and a new party system was introduced to Japan Though there were many political parties formed, one dominated, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), until the 1990s…party politics is not the same in Japan as the US In terms of international relations, Japan has largely remained quiet…during times of economic crisis worldwide since WWII they have gotten involved Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso
Social Changes/Issues Modern Japan has several social issues it deals with… 1) Population – Rampant growth in the 20 th century has led to massive overcrowding in Japan…space is scarce, housing is limited…most people live in urban apartments in Japan 2) Women – they have equality, but most have remain subordinate to their husbands…Japanese business is a male dominated world…women that do work have low paying jobs or find success in entertainment industry 3) Suicide – Japan has the highest suicide rate in the world, particularly among individuals 13-35…pressures of work (12+ hour work days), school pressures (240 days of school), pressures to please the family, and pressures to have great personal success lead many Japanese to end their lives like the ancient samurai if they fail!
The “Asian Tigers” The term “Asian Tigers” refers to the nations of Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea. Each of these nations experienced growth in the second half of the 20 th Century for two major reasons 1) The US and the West established a presence in these nations to prevent the spread of Communism after WWII 2) Japan and the West invested heavily in their economic growth, turning them into industrialized regions
Taiwan and Hong Kong Taiwan was ruled by China until 1895, when it fell to Japan. The Japanese built some industry, providing a foundation for later growth. After Chiang Kai-Shek lost in China, he took democracy to Taiwain, backed by Japan and the US Taiwan first set up light industries and later, developed heavy industry. Britain won Hong Kong from China after the Opium War. Hong Kong’s prosperity was based largely on trade (entrepot) and light industry. Hong Kong also became a world financial center. Hong Kong’s amazing growth was due in part to its location on China’s doorstep. In 1997, Britain returned Hong Kong to China but Hong Kong remains a largely economically independent state. TAIWANHONG KONG
Singapore Was another entrepot trading port of the British from 1819 to 1959 Upon independence from Britain in 1959 and Malaysia in 1963 Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew came to power…during his reign: supported a free-market economy attracted foreign capital by keeping labor costs low expanded Singapore’s seaport into one of the world’s busiest harbors welcomed skilled immigrants (China after WWII) insisted on education for all of Singapore’s people encouraged high-tech industries, manufacturing, finance, and tourism followed a Confucian model of development, emphasizing hard work and saving money Established a system of strict laws and punishments, limits on freedom (box on 869)
The Koreas After WWII, the US and Soviet Union agreed to split the Korean Peninsula and exert their influence…before long, the north was Communist and the south, Democratic North Korea wanted the whole peninsula Communist, so they invaded the south in 1950…a “heroic struggle” called the Korean War broke out…eventually neither side won and the peninsula was AGAIN split at the same line South Korea, with the help of the US and Japan, became an industrial power North Korea remains the only true Communist nation on Earth, with little interest in any outside influence…the government of Kim Jong Il is brutal, food is always in short supply, they try to build nuclear weapons, and long to reunite with the south at any cost.
For the remainder of the period… Work on C34 sec 1&3 puzzle and complete “Teenagers in Japan” reading and questions ASIA EXAM WEDNESDAY! Chapters include Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 13, Chapter 15 (secs 3&4), Chapter 25 (secs 4&5), Chapter 26 sec 1, Chapter 29 secs 3,4 & 5, Chapter 34 secs 1, 2 & 3 and Chapter 35 sec 1. TEST REVIEW TOMORROW!