Presentation on theme: "QIF Language Arts Pre-Service Teacher Education Development Programme Workshop 1: Day 4 Focus on Meaning in Classroom Interaction 10 th December, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
QIF Language Arts Pre-Service Teacher Education Development Programme Workshop 1: Day 4 Focus on Meaning in Classroom Interaction 10 th December, 2011
Review: Principles of Social Constructivism 1. Focus on learning not on performance. 2. View learners as co-constructors of meaning and knowledge. 3. Establish learner – teacher relationships that are built upon the idea of guidance not instruction. 4. Engage learners in tasks that are seen as ends in themselves and which build upon previous learning. 5. Promote assessment as an active process of uncovering and acknowledging shared understanding. 6. Recognise that the contexts in which learning takes place will play an important part in shaping the quality and depth of learning.
Classroom Talk: Following up students’ contributions Look at the following sample of classroom interaction from the Tanzania transcript: TWhere was the picture taken? Yes, please? I S1In the aeroplane.R TIn the aeroplane. Good, yes. In the aeroplane. F What do the letters I, R and F stand for? Initiate Respond Follow up (or Feedback)
Purposes of the teacher’s follow-up moves Follow up moves are not so common in every day conversations outside the classroom. Yet they are very common indeed in classroom talk between teacher and students. What are some of the functions and purposes of a teacher’s follow up move? Look at the I-R-F exchanges on the handout, and try to determine the teacher’s purpose behind the follow up move (in bold) in each case.
Form-focused and Content-focused follow up The ‘F’- move Form-focused Content-focused Evaluative Discoursal/ Conversational Directed at individual Directed to whole class student Backward-looking Forward-looking To promote accuracy To encourage fluency
Follow-up ‘Acts’ in the language class 1.Accept/ Acknowledge, e.g. ‘Yes’, ‘OK’, Thank you’ 2.Repeat/ Echo: T repeats what S has said, usually to confirm it is acceptable 3.Praise, e.g. ‘Good’, (either alone, or added to Act 1 or 2) 4.Query T queries the S contribution, e.g. by repeating it with a rising intonation 5.Seek clarification: often following 4. 6.Reject/ Correct: T indicates that the S contribution is incorrect and takes steps to correct it. 7.Recast/ Reformulate: T reformulates/ ‘tidies up’ S contribution in acceptable English and moves on 8.Elaborate: T elaborates on the student contribution, e.g. To explain, clarify or embellish what the S has said 9.Comment: T adds some comment of his/her own in response to what the S has said. Can include explanation of a language point 10.Follow up Question: T asks Q in response to what S has said
7 Task: Identifying follow-up acts in a transcript Look at the Tanzania transcript and the table showing the follow-up moves. In your groups, try to complete the table by: 1.Identifying whether each follow-up move is ‘form-focused’ or ‘content-focused’ 2.Identifying the follow-up acts the teacher uses in each move.
8 Strategies for effective, interactive follow up Good teachers: Listen to what students’ say Show interest in the content of what they say (as well as being aware of how they say it) React and are responsive Exploit opportunities to engage with students as co- conversationalists Balance focus on meaning with focus on form, according to the aim of the activity
9 Looking at lesson transcripts Look at the two lesson transcripts provided (one from Egypt, and the other from Tanzania). 1.Comment on the ways each teacher follow up on their students’ contributions and the follow up acts they use. 2.In whose class would you rather be a student, and why?
10 Using lesson transcripts in our teacher education classes How could you make use of lesson transcripts as material in your own teacher education classes? How can you get hold of examples of classroom interaction? Could you ask your students to record and make transcripts of their own classes during their Teaching Practice? How would such an exercise benefit their professional development?
Learner-centred teaching Some dimensions of L-C teaching: Learner engagement: focus on learning, not teaching Learner needs, including special needs Learner interests Learner wishes Learner goals Learner differences, including Learning styles Individualisation Personalisation Inclusion and Respect for diversity Collaborative learning Role of teacher
Collaborative reconstruction task: Dictogloss 1. A short, dense text is read to the learners (twice) at normal speed. 2.Learners make notes while it is being read. 3. In small groups learners pool their notes and try to reconstruct text. 4. Each group presents its own reconstructed text. 5.The various versions are analysed and compared, and amended in light of discussion. 6. Learners compare their versions with the original.
Dictogloss example from Thornbury 1997 Original Version There was a young woman from Riga Who went for a ride on a tiger They returned from the ride With the woman inside And a smile on the face of the tiger.
Dictogloss example (cont.) Reconstruction 1 (Individual Student) There was a woman from Riga who were on a tiger to make a ride. When they come back the woman was in tiger and tiger was smiling.
Dictogloss example (cont.) Reconstruction 2 (Group of 3 students) There was a woman from Riga who go for a ride on a tiger. The tiger come back with the woman inside and a smile on the tiger.
Dictogloss example (cont.) Reconstruction 3 (Whole class: 9 students) There was a young woman of Riga who went for a ride on a tiger. The tiger returned with the woman inside and a smile on its face. Reference: Thornbury, S. (1997) ‘Reformulation and reconstruction: tasks that promote noticing. ELT Journal 51/4: 326 - 335
Texts for dictogloss GARLIC, THE GREAT HEALER All through history people have used garlic for healing. People used it in India and China over 5000 years ago. Because it is a natural medicine, it is a safe antibiotic. During World War I, for example, doctors used garlic juice because it helped stop infection. (from Wajnryb 1990: 32)