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The Geography of Census October 6, 2014. What is the Census? The U.S. Census Bureau conducts many surveys but the most widely known and used is the decennial.

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Presentation on theme: "The Geography of Census October 6, 2014. What is the Census? The U.S. Census Bureau conducts many surveys but the most widely known and used is the decennial."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Geography of Census October 6, 2014

2 What is the Census? The U.S. Census Bureau conducts many surveys but the most widely known and used is the decennial census. The decennial census is mandated by the Constitution. First conducted in 1790 and conducted every 10 years since.

3 1790 Census Free White males of 16 years and upward (to assess the country's industrial and military potential) Free White males of 16 years and upward (to assess the country's industrial and military potential) Free White males under 16 years Free White males under 16 years Free White females Free White females All other free persons All other free persons Slaves Slaves

4 1790 Census Total population of the 13 states was 3,929,214. Top 3 Places RankCityPopulation 1New York, NY33,131 2Philadelphia, PA28,522 3Boston, MA18,320

5 1890 Census For the first time, enumerators were given detailed maps to follow so they could account for every street or road and not stray beyond their assigned boundaries.

6 1890 Census Total population of the 42 states was 62,979,766. Top 3 Places RankCityPopulation 1New York, NY1,515,301 2Chicago, IL1,099,850 3Philadelphia, PA1,046,964

7 1990 Census The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System (TIGER), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Census Bureau, was introduced for the 1990 Census. It is a computerized representation of various map features such as streets, and rivers, and census geographic boundaries and their attributes such as latitude, longitude and address ranges.

8 1990 Census Total population of the 50 states was 248,709,873. Top 3 Places RankCityPopulation 1New York, NY7,322,564 2Los Angeles, CA3,485,398 3Chicago, IL2,783,726

9 2000 Census In previous censuses, responses to the race question were limited to a single category; in 2000, for the first time, respondents could check as many boxes as necessary to identify their race.

10 2000 Census Total population of the 50 states was 281,421,906. Top 3 Places RankCityPopulation 1New York, NY8,008,278 2Los Angeles, CA3,694,820 3Chicago, IL2,896,016

11 2000 Census Since the 1940 Census, the decennial census consisted of a “short-form” and a “long-form”. The short form questions are basics like age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin. These questions are asked of 100% of the population.

12 2000 Census The “long-form” on the other hand is sent to a sample of the population. These questions ask about detailed characteristics like income, occupation, disability, education level, and much more…

13 2000 Census

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16 2010 Census The 2010 census questionnaire was one of the shortest in history - asking just 10 questions. The 2010 Census ONLY contains basic data on age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin along with a few housing items.

17 2010 Census Total population of the 50 states was 308,745,538. Top 3 Places RankCityPopulation 1New York, NY8,175,133 2Los Angeles, CA3,792,621 3Chicago, IL2,695,598

18 Why is there a Census?

19 Apportionment

20 Redistricting

21 What areas have data?

22 Primary Components of Census Geography Source: U.S. Census Bureau, TIGER/Line Files documentation

23 Levels of Census Geography Source: U.S. Census Bureau, TIGER/Line Files documentation

24 Sources for TIGER ® Data U.S. Census BureauU.S. Census Bureau Data Access & Support Center (DASC)Data Access & Support Center (DASC) ESRIESRI

25 TIGER ® Vintages 1990 TIGER Boundaries2000 TIGER Boundaries2010 TIGER Boundaries

26 American Community Survey

27 A large, continuous survey that: has an initial sample of about 3.5 million addresses per yearhas an initial sample of about 3.5 million addresses per year produces characteristics of population and housingproduces characteristics of population and housing produces estimates for small areas and small population groupsproduces estimates for small areas and small population groups

28 American Community Survey Content

29 ACS Content 4 types of characteristics: 4 types of characteristics: SocialSocial EconomicEconomic HousingHousing DemographicDemographic Characteristics, not population counts Characteristics, not population counts

30 American Community Survey Demographic Characteristics Sex Sex Age Age Race Race Hispanic Origin Hispanic Origin

31 American Community Survey Social Characteristics Education Education Marital Status Marital Status Fertility Fertility Grandparent Caregivers Grandparent Caregivers Veterans Veterans Disability Status Disability Status Place of Birth Place of Birth Citizenship Citizenship Year of Entry Year of Entry Language Spoken at Home Language Spoken at Home Ancestry / Tribal Affiliation Ancestry / Tribal Affiliation

32 American Community Survey Economic Characteristics Income Income Benefits Benefits Employment Status Employment Status Occupation Occupation Industry Industry Commuting to Work Commuting to Work Place of Work Place of Work

33 American Community Survey Housing Characteristics Tenure Tenure Occupancy & Structure Occupancy & Structure Housing Value Housing Value Taxes & Insurance Taxes & Insurance Utilities Utilities Mortgage/Monthly Rent Mortgage/Monthly Rent

34 American Community Survey 2008 Content Changes Three new questions Three new questions Health Insurance CoverageHealth Insurance Coverage Veteran’s Service-connected DisabilityVeteran’s Service-connected Disability Marital HistoryMarital History Deletion of one question Deletion of one question Time and main reason for staying at the addressTime and main reason for staying at the address Changes in some wording and format Changes in some wording and format

35 Types of ACS Estimates

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37 Period Estimates Describe the average characteristics over a specific period of time Describe the average characteristics over a specific period of time Contrast with point-in-time estimates Contrast with point-in-time estimates Do not describe the characteristics on a specific dateDo not describe the characteristics on a specific date Period is 1 year, 3 years, or 5 years for ACS Period is 1 year, 3 years, or 5 years for ACS

38 How to Label Multiyear Estimates ACS estimates based on data collected from should not be labeled “2008” or “2012” estimates ACS estimates based on data collected from should not be labeled “2008” or “2012” estimates Multiyear estimates do not represent any one year or the midpoint of a period Multiyear estimates do not represent any one year or the midpoint of a period Correct labeling for multiyear estimate: “The child poverty rate for the period was X percent.” Correct labeling for multiyear estimate: “The child poverty rate for the period was X percent.”

39 Constructing Multiyear Estimates Data are pooled across 36 or 60 months Data are pooled across 36 or 60 months Data are weighted to produce estimates Data are weighted to produce estimates Estimates are controlled for age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin Estimates are controlled for age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin Multiyear estimates are not an average of 1-year estimates Multiyear estimates are not an average of 1-year estimates

40 When should I use multiyear estimates?

41 Use Multiyear Estimates When … No 1-year estimate is available No 1-year estimate is available Margins of error for 1-year estimates are larger than required Margins of error for 1-year estimates are larger than required Analyzing data for small population groups Analyzing data for small population groups

42 Currency vs. Reliability CurrencyReliability 1-year estimates provide information based on the last year Larger sample sizes produce estimates that are more statistically reliable 3-year estimates provide information based on the last year and the 2 years before that 3-year estimates are based on 3 times as many sample cases as 1-year estimates 5-year estimates provide information based on the last year and the 4 years before that 5-year estimates are based on 5 times as many sample cases as 1-year estimates

43 Reliability Note: Fictional data

44 Example year estimates year estimates

45 What should I be aware of when using multiyear estimates?

46 Inflation Adjustment Dollar-valued data items are inflation adjusted to the most recent year for the period Dollar-valued data items are inflation adjusted to the most recent year for the period Income, rent, home value, and energy costs Income, rent, home value, and energy costs Adjusted using inflation factors based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Adjusted using inflation factors based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Adjustment designed to put the data into dollars with equal purchasing power Adjustment designed to put the data into dollars with equal purchasing power

47 Geographic Boundaries Multiyear estimates are based on geographic boundaries as of January 1 of the last year in the multiyear period Multiyear estimates are based on geographic boundaries as of January 1 of the last year in the multiyear periodExample: ACS estimates use boundaries as of Jan 1, 2012 Boundaries of other statistical areas will be updated every decade in conjunction with the decennial census Boundaries of other statistical areas will be updated every decade in conjunction with the decennial census

48 Geographic Boundaries

49 Summary: What Have We Learned? Multiyear estimates are period estimates Multiyear estimates are period estimates Multiyear estimates should be interpreted and labeled as period estimates Multiyear estimates should be interpreted and labeled as period estimates Data users should consider the tradeoffs of currency versus reliability Data users should consider the tradeoffs of currency versus reliability

50 Where can I find Census data?

51 American FactFinder

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60 TIGER ® Products

61 Example 1: Create simple county-level map using Census 2010 geodatabase

62 2010 Census Geodatabase National level geodatabase containing boundaries and data for states, counties, and Census tracts. National level geodatabase containing boundaries and data for states, counties, and Census tracts. Data items include total population, total housing units, median age, population 16 years and over, population 65 years and over, race, relationship, average household size, and many others. Data items include total population, total housing units, median age, population 16 years and over, population 65 years and over, race, relationship, average household size, and many others.

63 Median Age

64 Example 2: Create tract-level map using Census 2010 data

65 Percent African-American

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67 Example 3: Create block-level map using Census 2010 data

68 Dot density map of race/ethnicity

69 Examples 4-8: Mapping ACS Data

70 Mapping ACS Data

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75 Questions? Xan Wedel Institute for Policy & Social Research 607 Blake Hall

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