Asexual Reproduction 1) One Parent Organism 2) Offspring are identical (genetically) to the parent 3) Most common in 1 cell organisms (bacteria and protists) and fungi 4) Best suited for stable (unchanging) environments (If its not broke – don’t fix it)
Sexual Reproduction 1) 2 Parents 2) Genetic Variability between parents and offspring (they don’t match) 3) Occurs in ALL animals and plants 4) Genetic Variation give the species more opportunities to survive in an unstable (changing) environment
What does the term “fertile” mean when we say “fertile offspring?
What does it mean to have fertile offspring? Fertile offspring can have babies of their own Example: a pug and a Rottweiler could have fertile puppies (strange but true)….therefore the pug and Rottweiller are the same species
What does it mean to have fertile offspring? Example: A horse and a donkey can mate and produce an offspring known as a mule However, the mule is sterile (it can not reproduce) Therefore horse and donkeys belong to different species
Lions and Tigers (and bears) OH MY! Ligers are the result of a lion dad and a tiger mom. Tigons are the result of a tiger dad and a lion mom Female Ligers and Tigons are fertile, while male Ligers and Tigons are sterile What does this say about lions and tigers as separate species?
What does the survival of a species depend on? Reproduction What happens if a species does not reproduce? They go extinct
4) Living things adapt and evolve over time Adaptations are traits that allow a species to survive longer/better The better a species is at surviving the more likely they are to reproduce (or if they’re lucky – reproduce many times) The more reproduction – the more “successful” a species is
Changes within a species that produce adaptive traits Evolution 5) Living things adapt and evolve over time
Why do some types of traits survive and others don’t? Some are better suited for the environment Would you wear high heels to run in a track meet? Would you were hiking boots to a black tie formal event? WHY NOT???
Where do new traits come from? MUTATIONS! A mutation is a change in the DNA Changes can… BE HELPFUL BE HARMFUL MAKE NO DIFFERENCE
Mutations are not “directable” Can we create mutations on purpose? Can we wish for or will into existence mutations? Can we control what mutations come into being?
Group vs Individual IMPORTANT!!! – An individual organism can not evolve A group (like a species or a population) can evolve
Sexual Reproduction create genetic variety. How does this help an organism evolve to be better adapted to its environment?
5) Living things obtain and use energy for metabolic processes
Cell Respiration The process ALL living things use to turn food into useable energy NOT the same as breathing
What do we need energy for? Digestion Heartbeat and circulating blood Movement Breathing Sending and receiving nerve impulses Growth Reproduction Obtaining/Making Food Getting rid of waste Maintaining Stable internal temperature Maintaining stable internal pH
How do we get the food that is broken down for energy during cell respiration? Autotrophs Some organisms can make their own food They make food in a process called photosynthesis Includes all plants, some protists and some bacteria
How do we get the food that is broken down for energy during cell respiration? Heterotrophs Organisms that can’t make their own food must eat or absorb it from other organisms Includes all animals, fungi, some protists and some bacteria
INTERNAL – What’s the stimulus? What’s the response?
EXTERNAL – What’s the stimulus? What’s the response?
Internal Stimulus When blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin hormone into the blood. Insulin enhances the transport of glucose into body cells and stimulates the liver and muscle cells to store glucose as glycogen. When blood glucose level drops, the pancreas secretes the hormone glucagon, which opposes the effect of insulin. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen in theliver and the release of glucose into the blood, increasing blood glucose level
Internal Stimulus – What’s the stimulus? What’s the response?
EXTERNAL – What’s the stimulus? What’s the response?
8) Living things are based on a universal genetic code
Codes are read the same way in all organisms (from bacteria to oak trees to elephants)
The most basic unit of all life is: A.A DNA molecule B.A bacteria C.A Cell D.An Atom
Algae are unicellular protists that live in large colonial groups (millions of cells all living together). A common name for algae is seaweed. Why is algae not considered multicellular? A.It does not move B.It does not perform Cell Respiration C.It does not have DNA D.It does not have cell specialization
A change is size or number of cells would be an example of __?__, while changes in an organisms form would be an example of __?__. A) Growth / Development B) Response / Stimuli C) Development / Growth D) Metabolism / Energy
What creates new traits within a species? A) Introduction of a Predator B) Mutations C) Cell Respiration D) Homeostasis
What will cause an increase in survival? A) Having traits that are well suited to the environment B) Changing your trait because a new one would be really helpful C) Reproduction D) Mutations
What is the ultimate goal of every living thing? A)Having traits that are well suited to the environment B) Changing your trait because a new one would be really helpful C) Reproduction D) Mutations
Which of the following could never happen? A) Having traits that are well suited to the environment B) Changing your trait because a new one would be really helpful C) Reproduction D) Mutations
What causes new traits in ANY living thing? A) Having traits that are well suited to the environment B) Changing your trait because a new one would be really helpful C) Reproduction D) Mutations
Two metabolic processes that can allow living things to obtain and use energy are: A) Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration B) Heterotrophs and Autotrophs C) Inhaling and Exhaling D) Transport and Movement
Some organisms can perform___?___, but ALL organisms must perform ___?___. A) Photosynthesis / Cell Respiration B) Heterotrophs / Autotrophs C) Inhaling / Exhaling D) Cell Respiration / Photosynthesis
You notice that your neighbors dog pants a lot in hot weather. Your neighbor explains that dogs don’t sweat, so they release excess heat by evaporation from the dog’s tongue while panting. The dog is maintaining what as a result of this behavior? A) Nutrition B) Homeostasis C) Responses to the environment D) Reproduction
A teacher suddenly turns on all the lights after her powerpoint presentation. The pupils in her students’ eyes quickly contract. In this scenario, the lights is the __?__ and the change in pupil shape is the __?__. A) response / response B) stimulus / response C) response / stimulus D) stimulus / stimulus