Shrimp Gee-Whiz Shrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all decapods (they have 10 feet)Shrimp, crabs, lobsters and crayfish all decapods (they have 10 feet) Hundreds of spp. found in brackish and marineHundreds of spp. found in brackish and marine All farm-raised shrimp and most of the shrimp caught by fishermen belong to the Penaeidae family of decapod crustaceans and are referred to as "penaeids".All farm-raised shrimp and most of the shrimp caught by fishermen belong to the Penaeidae family of decapod crustaceans and are referred to as "penaeids".
Gulf Shrimp Identification BrownBrown –Groove on either side of spine on back of head –Similar groove on the last body segment before the tail segment (A) PinkPink –Groove on either side of spine on back of head –Similar groove on the last body segment before the tail segment –Dark or pinkish blotch on each side of body between carapace and tail (B) WhiteWhite –No grooves on spine or last segment before tail (C)
Penaeid Shrimp Life Cycle Shrimp have a maximum life span of about 24 months.
Larval Staging Penaeid Shrimp pass through three larval stagesPenaeid Shrimp pass through three larval stages –Nauplii –Zoeal –Mysis Postlarval (PL) follows larval stagesPostlarval (PL) follows larval stages –Look like shrimp by this stage
Nauplii Stage Six sub-stagesSix sub-stages –May lose 25% –Nauplii sub-stages take approximately 48 hours 36-51 hour range depending on temperature36-51 hour range depending on temperature –Begin feeding at N6
Zoeal Stage Zoea feed on phytoplanktonZoea feed on phytoplankton Three zoeal substagesThree zoeal substages –120 hrs –36-48 hrs per stage
Mysis Stage Look like adult shrimpLook like adult shrimp Begin to swim backwardsBegin to swim backwards Three sub- stagesThree sub- stages –Each last 24 hrs
Post Larvae Postlarvae (PL)Postlarvae (PL) –PL1: one day PL 0.0008 g/PL10.0008 g/PL1 –PL 20: 20 day PL 0.02 g/PL200.02 g/PL20 Swimming seta present on pleopodsSwimming seta present on pleopods Reared in tanks or racewaysReared in tanks or raceways Stocked in ponds beginning around PL15-PL20.Stocked in ponds beginning around PL15-PL20.
Larval Feeding Zoea IsochrysisIsochrysis –Brown algae –(3-5 m) ChaetocerosChaetoceros –Diatom –(4-6 m) TetraselmisTetraselmis Green algaeGreen algae (10-15 m)(10-15 m) Isochrysis Chaetoceros Tetraselmis
Larval Feeding Mysis Feed large algae cells early onFeed large algae cells early on Switch to artemia (brine shrimp) for later stagesSwitch to artemia (brine shrimp) for later stages
Larval Feeding Postlarvae ArtemiaArtemia –6/ml at PL4 decreasing to 0 by PL11 Formulated dietFormulated diet –35% protein –3% fat Feeding rateFeeding rate –200% bwt/day –50% X 4 times per day
General Shrimp Farming Concepts Marine shrimp are grown in earthen ponds located in coastal areas of countries with tropical and subtropical climates.Marine shrimp are grown in earthen ponds located in coastal areas of countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Ponds are filled with saltwater pumped from estuaries and oceans. Small shrimp reproduced and raised in captivity are stocked into the ponds and are ready for harvest in 90 to 120 days.Ponds are filled with saltwater pumped from estuaries and oceans. Small shrimp reproduced and raised in captivity are stocked into the ponds and are ready for harvest in 90 to 120 days.
Farm Location Locate ponds close to good quality brackish waterLocate ponds close to good quality brackish water –5-30 ppt –Farms can be inland if suitable aquifers are available Soil should have high clay contentSoil should have high clay content –25% Water table should not be within three feet of surfaceWater table should not be within three feet of surface
Farm Permits Construction permits from Corps of EngineersConstruction permits from Corps of Engineers Aquaculture Permits from stateAquaculture Permits from state Local permitsLocal permits
Farming Strategies ExtensiveExtensive –Large ponds –Low stocking densities –Little management or investment Semi-IntensiveSemi-Intensive –Falls in between the two extreme of intensive and extensive IntensiveIntensive –Smaller ponds –Aeration –High stocking densities –Feeding
Pond Construction Ponds range in size from 1-10 acresPonds range in size from 1-10 acres 4-7 feet deep4-7 feet deep Gentle bottom slopeGentle bottom slope Well maintained leveeWell maintained levee
Gulf and Inland Shrimp Species FoodFood –Western white shrimp Penaeus vannameiPenaeus vannamei –Northern white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferusLitopenaeus setiferus –Freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium spp.Macrobrachium spp. BaitBait –Brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecusFarfantepenaeus aztecus
Stocking Stock with post larval shrimp (PL)Stock with post larval shrimp (PL) –½ inch in length –Stock 40,000-80,000 PLs per acre –Havest 3,000lbs/acrea
Management Fertilize ponds prior to stockingFertilize ponds prior to stocking Feed good quality shrimp feedFeed good quality shrimp feed –35% protein –3-5% bwt per day Provide aeration when necessaryProvide aeration when necessary
Harvest Harvest in OctoberHarvest in October 22-36 count22-36 count Drain and seine pondsDrain and seine ponds Direct market or sell to processorDirect market or sell to processor
Common Problems Shortage of PLsShortage of PLs Shrimp virusesShrimp viruses
Commonly Cultured Marine Shrimp Penaeus merguiensis – Banana prawnPenaeus merguiensis – Banana prawn Penaeus indicus – Indian prawnPenaeus indicus – Indian prawn Penaeus japonicus - Kuruma prawnPenaeus japonicus - Kuruma prawn Penaeus duorarum – Atlantic pink shrimpPenaeus duorarum – Atlantic pink shrimp Penaeus aztecus – Atlantic brown shrimpPenaeus aztecus – Atlantic brown shrimp Penaeus setiferous – Atlantic white shrimpPenaeus setiferous – Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei – Pacific white shrimpLitopenaeus vannamei – Pacific white shrimp Penaeus monodon – Black tiger prawnPenaeus monodon – Black tiger prawn
Shrimp Species Giant Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon)Giant Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) –Named for its huge size and banded tail, P. monodon still accounts for most of the farmed shrimp coming out of Asia, but it's likely to lose that position to P. vannamei over the next couple of years. –Native to the Indian Ocean and the southwestern Pacific Ocean from Japan to Australia, "tigers" are the largest (maximum length 363 mm) and fastest growing of the farmed shrimp. –They tolerate a wide range of salinities, but shortages of wild broodstock often exist, captive breeding is difficult and hatchery survivals are low (20 to 30%). Tigers are very susceptible to two of the most lethal shrimp viruses: yellowhead and whitespot. –Reddish-orange on the sides and pearly-white on the top and bottom
Shrimp Species Western White Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei)Western White Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) –Native to the Pacific coast of Central and South America, –Leading farm-raised species in the Western Hemisphere, representing more than 95% of production. –Because vannamei feeds on organisms which grow naturally in the pond, it is cheaper to feed than monodon. –White shrimp can be stocked at small sizes, have a uniform growth rate and reach a maximum length of 230 millimeters. –They breed in captivity better than monodon –Hatchery survivals are high, from 50 to 60%. Throughout Latin America, hatcheries maintain captive stocks of vannamei broodstock. –Look for it to become the dominant species in Asia over the next couple of years.
Shrimp Species Chinese White Shrimp (Penaeus chinensis)Chinese White Shrimp (Penaeus chinensis) –Native to the coast of China and the west coast of the Korean peninsula. –Chinese white shrimp grow better in lower water temperatures (down to 16 degrees Celsius) than vannamei and monodon –Tolerate muddy bottoms and very low salinities— and, unlike the above species, Chinese white shrimp readily mature and spawn in ponds. –On the negative side, they have a high protein requirement (40 to 60%), a small size (maximum length of 183 millimeters), and a lower meat yield (56%) than monodon (61%) and vannamei (63%). –Also, chinensis appears to be more susceptible to viruses than vannamei.
Shrimp Species Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium spp.)Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium spp.) –World production of farmed prawns has risen to around 200,000 metric tons, worth about a billion dollars, most of it from Bangladesh and China. –The genus Macrobrachium, which includes about 200 species, almost all of which live in freshwater for at least part of their life cycle, native to all continents except Europe. –The favored species for farming has always been M. rosenbergii, sometimes called the "giant river prawn" or the "Malaysian prawn –In the United States, there are more than 500 small freshwater prawn farms (M. rosenbergii). –Resemble giant tiger shrimp, but they're bigger, chunkier, lighter in color, and their shells are always on. –If the bottom part of the shell on the second tail segment overlaps the shell on the first and third segments, it's a freshwater prawn.
Shrimp... Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus)Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) –Found in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico –Most abundant of the three Gulf Shrimp –Closely related to the pink shrimp –The brown shrimp is found in murkier and often deeper water. –Spawn offshore from November to April. –Young adults move out of protected marsh areas from May to July. Excellent bait speciesExcellent bait species candidate! candidate!
More Species White (Atlantic) shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus)White (Atlantic) shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) –Found in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico –Second most harvested species in the three Gulf Shrimp –The white shrimp is generally found in waters that are muddier, shallower, and less salty than waters where pink shrimp and brown shrimp live –Spawn offshore from March to October –Juvenile whites tolerate low salinity better than browns –Young adults migrate offshore from July to November
Shrimp Species Pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum)Pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) –Found in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico –Least abundant of the three Gulf Shrimp –This species generally lives in clear waters. –Spawn offshore from May through November –Migrate out of marshes from April to September
Broodstock Performance 40 g females, 35 g males40 g females, 35 g males Daily spawning rate (natural mating),Daily spawning rate (natural mating), As a % of the total female population: 5-8%/dayAs a % of the total female population: 5-8%/day Egg Production: 200-250,000 per female per spawn.Egg Production: 200-250,000 per female per spawn. Nauplii production: 100-150,000 per female per spawn.Nauplii production: 100-150,000 per female per spawn. Useful productive life of the broodstock: 3-6 monthsUseful productive life of the broodstock: 3-6 months Total spawns per female during her useful life: 10-15Total spawns per female during her useful life: 10-15
Specific Pathogen Free White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV)Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Yellow Head Virus (YHV)Yellow Head Virus (YHV) IHHN Virus (IHHNV)IHHN Virus (IHHNV) MBVMBV BP/MBVBP/MBV HPVHPV NHPNHP GregarinesGregarines MicrosporidiansMicrosporidians HaplosporidiansHaplosporidians
Pond Design 1 to 25 A in size1 to 25 A in size Silt soilSilt soil Good water sourceGood water source –Saline well –Pumped from ocean –Hauled from ocean Rectangular in shapeRectangular in shape
Acclimation to Low Salinity Salinity Change (PPT) Time(hrs) Change Per Hour (PPT) 32 to 16 82 16 to 8 81 8 to 4 80.5 4 to 2 80.25 2 to 1 80.125 1 to 0.5 80.063
Marketing Shrimp Price ranges from $1-4/lb heads on or $4-10/lb tails (Size dependant)Price ranges from $1-4/lb heads on or $4-10/lb tails (Size dependant) Sell to wholesalerSell to wholesaler ProcessProcess –Remove head –HACCP certification required –Market IQF or block frozen product
Culture of Marine Shrimp Culture of Marine Shrimp By Leonard Lovshin Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture Auburn University, AL 36849 USA
Major Culture Species Pacific white shrimp Peneaus vannamei Pacific tiger shrimp Peneaus monodon
Pacific white shrimp biology Food habits – benthic organizms, detritus Preferred water temperatures – 25 to 30 o C Preferred salinity – 15 to 25 ppt Sexual maturity - 1 year
Life Cycle Adults spawn at sea, the eggs and larvae drift to inshore estuaries where the juveniles grow. Adults move back to sea to spawn.
Marine shrimp have been harvested from coastal waters, processed and shipped as frozen product for many years. Shrimp farmers took advantage of the infrastructure to market cultured shrimp.
Shrimp postlarvae can be captured from the wild Push nets
Shrimp postlarvae can be produced in hatcheries Nauplii stage Zoea stage Mysis stage
Mature adults for spawning in hatcheries are captured from the ocean or raised in captivity. Ocean captivity broodstock
Wild and hatchery produced postlarvae are stocked into earthen ponds for grow-out
Ponds should be built on salt flats, which are covered during high tide twice a month. Mangrove forest should be preserved. Mangroves are flooded daily by the high tides
Ponds are 5 to 10 ha in area, water depth averages 1 m and bottoms are flat and slope to a drain to aid shrimp harvest.
Ponds are filled with saltwater pumped from estuaries into canals that distribute water to every pond. diesel pumps
Drain structures are “monks” or sluice gates which control water level, top or bottom water release and keep shrimp from escaping the pond.
Shrimp can be cultured: 1.Extensively 2.Semi-intensively 3.Intensively
Postlarvae enter the pond with the tide or are stocked at < 4/m 3. Sometimes the pond entrance is screened to limit entrance of predators. Water is not fertilized and shrimp are not fed. Extensive culture
Semi-intensive culture Postlarvae are stocked into ponds at 15 to 25/m 3 and are fed daily. Some water exchange is practiced to maintain water quality.
Shrimp are fed sinking pellets which are distributed over the pond surface. Feeding trays are sometimes used to help determine shrimp appetite.
Intensive Culture Shrimp are stocked at 35 - 250/m 2 in tanks and small ponds with heavy aeration and water exchange.
Ponds are fed daily Shrimp are sampled weekly to check growth rate Intensive Culture
Expansion of pond area leads to poor water quality and high shrimp mortality Water intake pipes and effluent release in Taiwan
Diseases have reduced the shrimp harvest in many countries. Black-spot disease Taura virus
Shrimp are benthic animals and live on the pond bottom. Pond bottoms should be dried to oxidize organic matter in pond mud before stocking shrimp. Reducing organic material improves water quality.
Shrimp are harvested as they pass through the sluice gate during pond draining.