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Published byJerome Goodman Modified about 1 year ago

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Geographic Information Systems TIGER Data

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1 Street Unit ► Street segment ► Street segment - The range of addresses that run along a street from one intersection to the next intersection - The range of addresses that run along a street from one intersection to the next intersection ► Address range - The range between the lowest possible house number at one intersection and the highest possible house number at the other intersection - The range between the lowest possible house number at one intersection and the highest possible house number at the other intersection

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2 Census Units ► Census tracts ► Block groups ► Blocks

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2 (1) Census Tracts ► Defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical reporting of demographic, economic, and other data ► The boundaries follow major streets or natural features ► Population in each tract is approximately 4,000 regardless of its size ► Census tracts are numbered consecutively and unique within the jurisdiction

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2 Census Units ► Census tracts

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2 (2) Block Groups ► Comprise a population of approximately 1,500 ► Boundaries coterminous with census tract boundaries

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Block groups R Brancoto, SUNY Buffalo

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2 (3) Blocks ► Smallest geographic area formed by street segments ► Coded by a 4-digit number - The first one represents the block group - The last three are consecutive and unique within a block group - The last three are consecutive and unique within a block group

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Census Units.. County Census tract Block group Block

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3. GBF/DIME Files ► Geographic Base Files (GBF) ► Dual Independent Map Encoding System (DIME) ► Dual Independent Map Encoding System (DIME) -A data format used by the U.S. Census Bureau to encode street network and related data for the 1980 Census. -It covers only the metropolitan areas - DIME was replaced by TIGER in 1990 census

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4 Vector (1) Non-Topological Structure Storing coordinates of two polygons: and Polygon x 1, y 1 ; x 2,y 2 ; x 3,y 3 ; x 4,y 4 ; x 5,y 5 ; x 1,y 1. Polygon x 1, y 1 ; x 6,y 6 ; x 7,y 7 ; x 2,y 2 ; x 1,y 1. (x1, y1) (x2, y2) A B

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4 Vector (2) Topological Structure Storing coordinates of two polygons: and Line 1 x 1, y 1 ; x 2,y 2 ; x 3, y 3 ; x 4, y 4 ; x 5,y 5 ; Line 2 x 1, y 1 ; x 5,y 5 ; Line 3 x 5, y 5 ; x 6,y 6 ; x 7, y 7 ; x 1, y 1 ; Polygon Line 1, Line 2 Polygon Line 2, Line 3 (x1, y1) (x5, y5) Line 1 Line 2 Line 3

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4. TIGER ► Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing Files (TIGER) ► Developed by the U.S. Census Bureau for 1990 census ► The spatial and attribute processes were combined into one system ► A single seamless data set that covers the entire country ► Topologically structured

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TIGER Geographic Features ► A combination of DIME and 1:100,000 Digital Line Graph ► Uses geographic coordinate system ► Two types of data: - a tabular form of demographic, social, economic - a tabular form of demographic, social, economic statistics statistics - a GIS form - a GIS form ► Aggregated information is available at the block group level, few at the block level

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TIGER Geographic Features.. ► GIS data are available as both polygon data and line data ► The polygon data contain the population information in tracts, block groups, and blocks ► The line data contain streets and utility lines information ► The data have spatial locations, attributes, and topology

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TIGER..

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► American Community Survey ► An ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year ► 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year estimates ta_users/estimates/ ta_users/estimates/

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5. Applications of TIGER Data ► Address matching ► Network analysis ► District delineation

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Address Matching (line data)

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Address Matching..

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Network Analysis Shortest path routines (line data)

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Network Analysis.. Salesperson Problem (line data)

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Network Analysis.. Location allocation (Line and polygon data)

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Districting Delineation Political redistricting (polygon data)

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Readings ► Chapter 3

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4. TIGER

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GBF/DIME Files..

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