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Introduction and citation conventions Judy Reading using Angela Carritt’s slides.

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1 Introduction and citation conventions Judy Reading using Angela Carritt’s slides

2 “Why do I have to cite?” To give credit to the original author / creator To show which sources you have consulted To give greater authority to your own work So that the reader can refer to the original work If you don’t cite your sources you may be guilty of plagiarism! Its a scholarly thing to do! More information about plagiarism from: http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/epsc/plagiarism/

3 “When do I have to cite?” When you are quoting someone else’s words or data or reproducing their work When you are paraphrasing or reporting on someone else’s ideas, works or research You do not need to cite anything which is common knowledge within your discipline

4 “Is it just books that I have to cite?” No… Books, book chapters, journal articles, conference papers, statistics, theses, patents, web pages, weblog posts, law reports, statutes, parliamentary proceedings, parliamentary documents, government documents, interviews, broadcasts, podcasts, videos…

5 “How to I cite?” It depends on the citation style used by your department but generally… Include a brief reference in the body of your text at the point where you refer to someone else’s work Give fuller details of the work you are citing in a separate part of your document (e.g. in footnotes, endnotes or references section) You may need a bibliography as well! Bibliography – what you have read on the topic Footnotes/Endnotes/List of references – what you have referred to

6 “What should I include in a citation?” The citation style used by your department will include detailed notes explaining exactly what you need to include in a citation The information you will need to provide will vary depending on what type of work you are citing (e.g. book, article, broadcast, web site) In general you must include enough information for your reader to find the work you are citing be consistent

7 “What are citation styles?” Rules governing how you cite your sources: 1. How to insert your citation in the text and where to put your full citations 2. What details you need to include in your full citation for each type of document i.e. what details do you need to include when citing book…a journal article…a web site…a conference paper etc 3. Exactly how your reference should be laid out formatted, and punctuated - in detail

8 Citation styles: Most citations styles are based on… The Author date system Harvard (many different flavours) APA (American Psychological Association) MLA (Modern Languages Association) Numerical systems Running notes style MHRA Modern Humanities Research Association Numeric style Vancouver IEEE

9 Author-Date Styles Sources are cited in the body of the text by inserting the author’s surname and year of publication in brackets The full citations of all the sources cited are given at the end of the text in alphabetical order of author

10 e.g. Author-Date: In text citation Why do tigers have stripes? “Tyger! Tyger! burning bright ” (Blake 1794) Traditionally scientists have believed that the striped coats of tigers have evolved as a means of camouflaging the tiger when hunting for prey. However, recent research has shown that tigers prefer to wear stripes (Jones and Brown 2006). This has been supported by a survey of tigers at the “Really rather hard to find reserve” which revealed that that 87% of Tigers preferred stripes over plain or spotted coats (WWF 2008).

11 e.g. Author-Date: References BLAKE, W. (1794). The Tyger. In S. HEANEY and T HUGHES (Eds.) The rattle bag. London: Faber and Faber, p. 444 JONES, I. and F. BROWN. (2006). Tigers on the cat walk. London: Sage. JONES, I and F. BROWN. (2007). ‘The designer tiger’. Journal of Something Obscure and Unlikely, vol. 35, no. 3, pp.25-89. SMITH, M.S. (2007) ‘Tigers and zebras: friends after all’. Journal of Something Else Obscure, vol. 36, no. 1, pp.34-98. WORLD WILDLIFE FUND (2008) Tiger fashion survey http://www.wwf.org/blah [Accessed 02/04/08) http://www.wwf.org/blah Harvard comes in many different flavours. Students MUST consult departmental guides for guidance on exact formatting and layout.

12 Notes on formatting citations using Harvard BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1989) BS1629:1989, Recommendations for references to published materials, London: BSI BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1990) BS5605:1990, Recommendations for citing and referencing published materials, London: BSI BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1989) BS 5271-1:2000, Copy preparation and proof correction - part 1: design and layout of documents, London: BSI ANGLIA RUSKIN UNIVERSITY Harvard System of Referencing Guide @ http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST OF ENGLAND. The Harvard system referencing guide @ http://www.uwe.ac.uk/library/resources/general/info_study_skills/harv ard2.htm http://www.uwe.ac.uk/library/resources/general/info_study_skills/harv ard2.htm UNIVERITY OF LIVERPOOL Referencing: a guide for University of Liverpool online students @ http://www.liv.ac.uk/library/ohecampus/ref.htm http://www.liv.ac.uk/library/ohecampus/ref.htm BOURNEMOUTH UNIVERSITY. BU guide to citation in the Harvard style brief guide @ http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/docs/Citing_R efs.pdf http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/docs/Citing_R efs.pdf

13 Author-date variants APA is very similar to Harvard. MLA uses page numbers instead of year in the citation

14 Numerical referencing styles Numerical systems Superscript or bracketed number is inserted in the text Full citation given in footnotes / endnotes at the end of each chapter or the whole work Running notes style Every citation has a new number. If the same source is cited many times it will have many different numbers. British Standard “Running notes” system Modern Humanities Research Association style Numeric style Every unique citation has a new number. If the same source is cited many times it is always cited using the same number British Standard “Numeric” System Vancouver IEEE

15 e.g. Running notes system Why do tigers have stripes? “Tyger! Tyger! burning bright ” 1 Traditionally scientists have believed that the striped coats of tigers have evolved as a means of camouflaging the tiger when hunting for prey. However, recent research 2 has shown that tigers simply prefer stripes. This has been supported by a survey 3 of tigers at the “Really rather hard to find reserve” which showed that 87% of Tigers preferred stripes over plain or spotted coats. The main reason for tiger’s preference for spotted coats has developed as a reaction to the spotty coast of their natural enemy the Leopard 4. However, Smith 5 has pointed out that the tigers fondness for stripes is also based on their admiration for Zebras. His indepth study of the Indian tiger revealed that Tigers hold zebras for their for their “stylish dress sense” 6 and contribution to road safety. This has been born out by the WWF survey 7 of Tigers in which 89% of zebras admired Zebras over other animals.

16 e.g. Running notes - footnotes / endnotes 1. BLAKE, W. “The Tyger.” The rattle bag. Eds. Seamus Heaney and Ted Hughes. London: Faber and Faber, 1997. p. 444 2. JONES, I. and BROWN, F. Tigers on the cat walk. London: Sage, 2006. 3. WORLD WILDLIFE FUND. Tiger fashion survey, 2008. Available at http://www.wwf.org/blah [Accessed 02/04/08]http://www.wwf.org/blah 4. JONES, I and BROWN F. The designer tiger. Journal of Something Obscure and Unlikely, 2007, vol. 35, no. 3, pp.25- 89. 5. SMITH, M.S. Tigers and zebras: friends after all. Journal of Something Else Obscure, 2007, vol. 36, no. 1, pp.34-98. 6. Ibid. p 36 7. WWF. op. cit. p.6 Running notes comes in many different flavours. Students MUST consult departmental guides for guidance on exact formatting and layout.

17 Running-notes style variants Also known, mostly outside Britain, as the Chicago, Turabian, Oxford or Cambridge style

18 Numeric reference style Why do tigers have stripes? “Tyger! Tyger! burning bright ”(1) Traditionally scientists have believed that the striped coats of tigers have evolved as a means of camouflaging the tiger when hunting for prey. However, recent research (2) has shown that tigers simply prefer stripes. This has been supported by a survey (3) of tigers at the “Really rather hard to find reserve” which showed that 87% of Tigers preferred stripes over plain or spotted coats.

19 Vancouver 1. Blake W. Tyger. In Heaney S, Hughes, H (Eds) The rattle bag. London: Faber and Faber, 1982, p 444. 2. Jones I, Brown F. Tigers on the cat walk. London: Sage, 2006. 3. WWF [Tiger fashion survery on the internet]. London: WWF. 2006. [cited 2008 Apr 2]. Tiger fashion survey; Available from: http://www.wwf.org/blah site. http://www.wwf.org/blah Vancouver comes in many different flavours. Students MUST consult departmental guides for guidance on exact formatting and layout.

20 Notes on formatting using the Vancouver and IEEE systems Vancouver MONASH UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. Vancouver style (uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals) THE UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND. References/Bibliography Vancouver Styles “How to” guide UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN. Vancouver style guide@ http://www.ucd.ie/library/students/information_skills/vancouver.html http://www.ucd.ie/library/students/information_skills/vancouver.html UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRLIA, Vanouver citation sytle @ http://www.library.uwa.edu.au/education_training_and_support/guides /vancouver_citation_style http://www.library.uwa.edu.au/education_training_and_support/guides /vancouver_citation_style IEEE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE. IEEE Style @ http://www.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cite/ieee/index.html#essentials Monash University Library. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) style examples@ http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/ieee.html UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY. IEEE citation style guide @ http://www.ucalgary.ca/lib- old/subjects/ENGG/IEEE%20Citation%20Style%20Guide.pdf

21 General references NEVILLE C. (2007). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press PEARS R. and G. SHIELDS (2008) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Newcastle: Pear Tree Books FISHER D. and T. HANSTOCK. (1998) Citing references: a guide for students. Oxford: Blackwells


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