5Extinct Tigers-Javan Last seen in 1972 Prime causes for extinction Poisons (poisoned boar)Encroachment of plantationsThese coincided w/ a loss of large ungulate prey baseCurrently no room for tigers on Java
6Extinct Tigers-Bali Believed to have gone extinct in 1937 The Dutch colonization in 1910 broughtPlantationsHuntersSimilar losses of habitat as the JavanCurrently no room on Bali for tigers
7Extinct Tigers-Caspian Last one reportedly shot in 1959Preferred reed beds, but these were reclaimed as ag landProbably also due to civil unrest
8Amur (Siberian) Tiger Largest subspecies of all tigers Males Females nearly 11 feet longweighing in around 660 poundsFemalesup to 8 1/2 feet longweighing about 200 to 370 pounds.
11Amur (Siberian) Tiger Distinguished from the other subspecies by Wider spaced brown stripesPaler orange furWhite belly furThicker, longer hair with thick neck tuft
12Amur (Siberian) TigerCurrently around 400 survive in the wild Russia, China and possibly N.KoreaNumbers and range have shrunk dramatically in the past 100 years with a recent increased declines since the 1990’sImportant that 400 may not be the actual “effective population”
13Amur (Siberian) Tiger Causes of the population declines PoachingHabitat lossHabitat loss arrived in eastern Russia with the railroads.
14Amur (Siberian) Tiger Habitat requirements of the Siberian tiger Not really any for the tigers per seBUT, their food does have habitat requirementsRed Deer (Cervus eluphus xanthropygus)Prefer forests with small openingsWild Boar (Sus scrofa)Prefer forests with mast producing treesPrimarily Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis)Probably also Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica)
16Amur (Siberian) Tiger Habitat loss Primary effects of habitat loss Widespread deforestationLarge scale harvest of Korean PinePrimary effects of habitat lossCreation of a sink for dispersing tigersLoss of habitat for preyWhy?Increased encounters with humansIncreased depredations increased license huntingGives false impression of population size due to more visible tigers
17Amur (Siberian) Tiger Why? contd. Large home ranges Female 200-400 km2 Male home ranges typically overlap 2 or 3 female home ranges
18Amur (Siberian) Tiger Habitat Protection Protect what is left (save what you can now, think about improvements later)Primary concern areas are those with with pristine forest remainingNo permanent signs of humans should exist
19Amur (Siberian) TigerSecondary areas of emphasis should be those forests that are 90% intact, but some logging is taking place.Only selective logging would be allowedThis would leave only small gapsLogging roads would be closed when not in useTertiary areas of concern are those of mixed land uses where 70% forest remainsMixed land uses would persistHuman operations would be closed whenever possible
20Amur (Siberian) TigerMost importantly for all three areas of protection concernMaintain a large ungulate prey baseConcentrate on habitat for tiger prey
21Amur (Siberian) Tiger Tiger corridors May provide cover to allow tigers to disperseCould help prevent the “sink” effect of open areasWould probably allow enough dispersal for a reasonable genetic flow between fragmented populationsWould increase the “effective” population sizeDo not, however, provide home range habitat (too narrow)
23Distribution, Life History, Population Distributions-The Bengal tiger occurs primarily throughout India, with smaller populations in southern Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and western Myanmar
24PopulationAccording to Peter Jacksons’ editorial in May of 1998 the numbers of Bengal Tigers are as follows:Bangladesh-362 individualsBhutan-91 adultsChina-35 individualsIndia-3,750 individualsMyanmar-231individualsNepal-97 adults
25Life HistorySizeMale Bengal tigers average 2.9 meters (9 1/2 feet) from head to tail and weigh about 220 kilograms (480 pounds). Females are smaller, measuring about 2.5 meters (8 feet) in length and weighing approximately 140 kilograms (300 pounds).
26Life History Color Have you heard of Jenny Craig? Most tigers are redish brown in color with dark stripes and white stomachs.Records indicate however, that a few wild tigers have been seen in unusual colors, including all white and all black . Have you heard of Jenny Craig?
27White TigersA popular attraction in zoos, white tigers in the wild were recorded in India during the Mughal Period from 1556 to 1605 ADAt least 17 instances were recorded in India between 1907 and 1933 in Orissa, Bilaspur, Sohagpur and RewaBut mostly found in zoos today.
28South China Tiger• An estimated individuals South China tigers still exist in the wild. Currently 47 South China tigers live in 18 zoos, all in China.The South China tiger is the most critically endangered of all tiger subspecies.
30South China TigerChinese specialists believe between 20 and 30 tigers are still left in the wild. The last time a wild tiger was seen in the wild was 10 years ago. These facts suggest that the South China tiger is the rarest of the five living tiger subspecies, the most threatened, and the closest to extinction.
31General InformationThe South China tiger is one of the smallest tiger subspeciesMales are ~150 kilograms (330 pounds)Females are ~110 kilograms (240 pounds)Because there are so few wild South China tigers, and they have rarely been seen, very little is know about them at this point in timeThe tiger is a favorite subject of Chinese artists, depicted as fierce and powerful
32BiologyAge: The life span the South China and Bengal in the wild is about 10 to 15 years. Tigers in zoos live to be around 16 and 20 years old.Fur: Tiger hair length varies geographically. In the southern subspecies the hairs are short (approximately 7 to 20 mm on the back and 15 to 35 mm on the stomach).Claws: The forefeet have five toes and the hind feet have four toes. All toes have claws. The claws are 3-4 inches.Teeth: Adult tigers have 30 large teeth. The length of the canine teeth can be between 2.5 to 3 inches.Chromosomes: Chromosomes are arranged in pairs and there are 19 pairs or 38 total.
33Food• Bengal and South China tigers prey primarily on wild deer and bovids.
34Management Implications According to the study by James Smith et al. Tigers must have the following in order to have a viable populationVery high ratio of good to excellent habitatWhen the “good” habitat in less that 50% breeding tigers will not occur in the area. If it drops to less than 30% no tigers will be foundLittle or no metapopulationsStop poachingStop or decrease habitat lossIncrease prey numberThe prey numbers are down because of habitat loss
35“Good Habitat” Tropical evergreen and deciduous forests Coniferous, scrub oak, and birch woodlandsThe mangrove swamps, and dry thorn forests of northwestern India, and the tall grass jungles at the foot of HimalayasThe tiger's habitat requirements can be summarized as: some form of dense vegetative cover, sufficient large ungulate prey and access to water.
36Loss of HabitatMuch of the forest and almost all of the grasslands have gone as a growing human population converts them to land for settlement and agriculture.In Nepal, between 1990 and 1995, 1.1 percent of the country’s forest cover was lost each year.Habitat loss has resulted in fragmented tiger distributions in Nepal. (ultimately decreasing the population)Many of these populations are currently too small to have long term viability
37PoachingTiger parts are used in traditional Chinese medicine, in the form of tiger bone wine and tiger plasters.Primary consumers of tiger products are Chinese communities throughout the world.Drastic rise in tiger poaching was first noticed in 1990.If the present worldwide rate of poaching continues for three to six more years, many tiger populations may be extinctThey are protected by the Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES)Nepal has had serious problems at the national level with endangered species trade control and CITES enforcement, serving as an important conduit in the illegal trade of tiger parts.
39Distribution Sumatran tigers are only found on the island of Sumatra About 400 to 500 Sumatran tigers live in the wild, mostly in the island's five national parks. Another 235 Sumatran tigers live in zoos around the world
40Life History What do Sumatran Tigers look like? Sumatran tigers are the smallest subspecies of tiger. It has the darkest coat of all tigers. Its broad, black stripes are closely spaced and often doubled. Unlike the Siberian tiger, it has striped forelegs
41Life History Weight Length Male Sumatran tigers weigh about 264 pounds Female Sumatran tigers weigh about 198 poundsLengthMale Sumatran tigers average 8 feet from head to tailFemale Sumatran tigers are smaller, about 7 feet in length.
42FoodThe Sumatran tiger eats wild pig, rusa deer, muntjak or barking deer which is a smaller deer
43HabitatThe Sumatran tiger is found in habitat that ranges from lowland forest to sub mountain and mountain forest with some peat-moss forestPopulation density in these areas are about 4-5 tigers per 100km²
44Deforestation and Poaching Deforestation is depriving tigers of needed habitat leading to subpopulationsPoaching is accelerating leading from deforestation; Tigers are easier to find in these areas of less habitat
45Conservation Sumatran Tiger Project This is a long-term field study designed to develop a cost-effective field census system for wild tigers using ground-based census counts, remote camera census, and radio-telemetry that can be modified and used as a model for long-term population monitoring in Way Kambas and other protected areas. Researchers will establish a set of life history characteristics that will be critical in developing effective interactive management strategies for wild populations
46Conservation Sumatran Tiger Project cont. The project is also looking to educate the people and allocate forest resources in tiger habitatThis project has been ongoing for multiple years and is keeping track of the number of tigers in each area through several methods of observation
47Conservation Mark-recapture efforts This is a similar grid system that is used in estimating the tiger populations in SumatraStudy by Karanth and Nichols (1998) in India estimated the density for tiger populations (by capture-recapture) and their prey base (by line transects)LocationTiger densityUngulate densityHabitat typeKanha15.604.5Tropical moist evergreen forestKaziranga22.4016.9Alluvial grasslandNagarahole15.338.7Pench9.911.0
50DistributionThe majority of Indochinese tigers are centered in Thailand. They are also found in Myanmar, southern China, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and peninsular MalaysiaAbout 1,050-1,750 tigers are left in the wild. About 60 live in zoos, mostly in Asia, with a few in the U.S.A.
51Life History What do Indochinese tigers look like? Look a lot like Bengal tigers, but are a bit smaller and darker, with shorter, narrower stripes
52Life History Weight Length Male Indochinese tigers weigh about 400 poundsFemale Indochinese tigers weigh about 250 poundsLengthMale Indochinese tigers average 9 feet from head to tailFemale Indochinese tigers are smaller, about 8 feet in length
54HabitatLive in remote forests in hilly to mountainous terrain, much of which lies along the borders between countriesPopulation densities in these areas are similar to the Sumatran tiger which is 4 to 5 adult tigers/100 km2
55ConservationAccess to tiger habitat is often restricted, and biologists have only recently been granted limited permits for field surveys.As a result, relatively little is know about the status of these tigers in the wild.
56ConservationAt this point, very little has been done in Indochinese tiger management. Since the inability to access tiger habitat, only talk has started in the last years.There have been a couple of workshops held to plan for conserving the tigersMasterplan workshop held at Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Thailand, July 1995Tiger GIS Workshop Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand, Jan. 1996
57ConservationAfter the workshops the main concerns right now are to maintain a healthy stock of tigers in zoos, mostly in ThailandDeforestation, educating the people, and controlling the poaching is the main management implications so far
58Protection in Vietnam Laws protecting tigers and tiger concerns Decree 39/CP, 1963 on regulation of hunting for wildlife. Tiger was one of 4 limited hunting species.Regulation (1972) on forest protection.Decision 276/QD (1989) promulgating ban on hunting, trading of tiger and 37 other species.Law for forest protection and development (1991).Decree 18/HDBT (1992) stipulates management and protection of rare and precious species of flora and fauna. Tiger is one of 49 species and subspecies of complete ban on hunting and using.Decree 14/CP stipulates system of penalties for violation on forest protection.In 1994 Vietnam has joint to CITES for more effective control of wildlife trade including tiger.March 1995, subregional tiger workshop held in Hanoi to establish Action plan for tiger conservation in Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea
59Status of Captive Tigers 20% of the entire tiger population is studbook-registered:475 Siberian235 Sumatran300 Bengal50 South China35 IndochineseThese do not include tigers in circuses, private facilities, or non-participating zoos throughout the world.Do not contribute to breeding programs
61Captive Management Species Survival Plans (SSP) Objective: Preservation of wildlife both as species and as components of ecosystemsCooperative management programs for the AZA (American Zoo and Aquarium Association)Reinforce, not replace, wild populationsGene pools…are becoming puddles
62AZA Tiger SSP Manage 3 of the 5 remaining subspecies 102 member institutions with 277 tigers:154 Siberian; goal=17554 Sumatran; goal=17510 Indochinese; goal=75Bengal; goal=7559 generic tigersGoal: 90% genetic diversity for the next yearsUse breeding programs in zoos to produce genetically diverse individuals
63SSP MasterplanStrength of the plan lies within the biological database for each animal =StudbookComputerized database containing genetic, demographic and relevant biological information about zoo animals worldwideAvoid inbreedingPreserve genetic diversityInternational
64Breeding Programs Artificial insemination In vitro fertilization Placing sperm into the females vaginaNot very successful (only 1 cub)Tiger ovulation is induced by matingIn vitro fertilizationEggs from female and sperm from maleFertilized in labInjected into femaleHas produced a litter of 3 cubs
65More Breeding “Frozen zoos” Reproductive research Naturally Sperm and eggs preserved in nitrogenNot yet successful, but promisingReproductive researchMonitor ovarian cyclesImprove assisted reproduction technologyGenetic resource bankNaturallyThe recommended methodSSP recommends when, who will be moved to zoos for breeding
66The Ethics of Captive Animals “Circus” tigers and “zoo” tigers have diverging interests
67The Ethics of Captive Animals Dallas zoo: remodeled$4.5 million1 acre of habitat which resembles a rainforest that has recently been loggedNow have enough room to implement captive breeding (SSP)Private Facilities
68Poaching Some statistics from the early 90’s Trade in tiger bone South Korea imported 9000kg of bone over 24 years ( )About 750 skeletonsTaiwan imported 12,000kg over 10 years ( )China is a supplier, processor and consumerTrade in tiger boneMajor factor that threatens survivalUsed for thousands of years in Asian medicine for treatment of rheumatismTiger bone wine
69“Killed for a Cure” Judy A. Mills and Peter Jackson 1994 TRAFFIC reportDocumented the importance of the tiger tradeIncreased national and international awarenessNovember 1994CITES passed a resolution to prohibit domestic trade of tiger boneAlso called for a ban on using tiger parts in traditional medicineAll subspecies, except Siberian, of tigers and their derivatives were banned from international trade under CITES in 1975.Siberian in 1987
70Progress in Tiger Trade SupplyMore seizures of goodsPrices are lowerMajor supplying markets disappearedProcessingManufacture has stopped in many countriesChina now substitutes sailong (mole rat)Medicines that are found are old stockDemandAvailability has declinedConsumers now support wildlife conservationInternational TradeMore countries join CITES
71Trade ContinuesIllegal supply market still operate (Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam)Processing markets label medicines incorrectlyDomestic retail trade in Japan, China, Vietnam, Thailand, IndonesiaInternational trade through “an army of ants”= large number of people smuggling small volumes of goods
72What to doImproved enforcement on trade bans, especially internationalIncrease penalties for poachingRaise conservation awarenessMore research to help distinguish between real and fake tiger parts and productsAdopt a tiger$2000Eviction of humans from tiger habitatConservation Education