UTSA – M.S. Program World Academic programs after Bachelor’s work Often default for Ph.D. Today: Ph.D. Funding
Latin: Philosophiae Doctor A doctorate or doctoral degree is An academic degree of the highest level. Recognition of the candidate as an equal by the university or Graduate School faculty under which he or she studied. Usually research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research Is of a publishable standard (even if not actually published) Represents at least a modest contribution to human knowledge Is usually assessed by submission and defense of a doctoral thesis or dissertation, though in some cases a coherent body of published literature can be accepted instead. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graduate_school
All of the careers requiring a Doctorate come out of basic training in an academic institution University “Graduate Schools” at Medical, Dental, Vet Schools
Bachelor’s Degree. Grad. path Depends on Field M.S. Degree Post Bacc Research Doctoral Studies Academic Postdoc Industry Postdoc Government Postdoc Continue Education Academics Government Industry Other 1-2 Yrs Engineering /Humanities etc Work 3 - 6 Yrs 4 - 7 Yrs “Hard” Sciences
Generally Full Time Student Usually no outside job Sometimes Company will PAY for Ph.D. Tuition/Fees Living Expenses – Food, housing, etc. Books, Thesis and Degree Costs, etc Health Insurance Travel to Conferences
Already have HUGE Undergraduate Loans Medical/Professional School Costs High…. For Ph.D.? Usually someone else pays or keeps you “employed” Money comes from all over!
Cost of classes and university amenities Someone always has to pay the tuition Does not merely “disappear” if funded by Univ. Usually Dept. will keep paying Must consider tuition/fees, Health Ins, Travel if you obtain alternative funding
May learn technique elsewhere Presenting at conferences very important to development Submit abstracts (small publication) Make Oral/Poster Presentations Network with others in field Find jobs
Amount you are given to live upon 20K – 30K level Amount depends on… School Cost of Living/Location Degree Competitive recruitment High Stipend may mean you pay Tuition….
Don’t believe that you will always be healthy… HBC grad student Cervical pre-cancerous lesions Appendicitis
Grad students seldom are without funding if.. Are progressing (< 7th year) Doing “solid” work Have a good reputation Generally, if you’re in and prior to your 7th year, you will be funded.
Accept position by “Financial Aid deadline” University matches you with $$ Money available for URM/Disadvantaged students Go about your business (for as long as $$ is promised) Then, get new source… Some Fields/Univs…you seek $$
You University Stipend Scholarships Fellowships TAship Tuition/Fees/Health Ins. This will most likely be your graduate experience…
You? Your Mentor (when mentors have grants…) The Program? The University? The State? The U.S. Government? Private Organizations? Outside Jobs?
Stipend (usually for first few years) Fellowships/Scholarships Money awarded to student Reward grades (entice top tier students) Support someone with certain background Usually no service reqd. Research assistantships/associate-ships Must perform research Teaching assistantships Must teach (~1 class/sem or yr) Special programs/funds MBRS-RISE or training grant MCNAIR – Graduate Scholars
Fellowship may refer to: A merit-based scholarship, or form of academic financial aidscholarship An academic position: see fellowfellow Fellowship (medicine), a period of medical training after a residency Fellowship (medicine)
You University College/Grad School Department/ Program Alumni Investments Research Grants Students’ Tuition/Fees Philanthropy / Private Endowments/ Interest State Govt Programs Stipend Scholarships Fellowships TAship Tuition/Fees/Health Ins. Services
Research Assistantships Work on own research (Same as mentor’s) Work on Mentor’s research (In addition to own) May come from Grant May come from Univ
You University Department/ Program Alumni Investments Research Grants Students’ Tuition/Fees Philanthropy /Private Endowments/ Interest State Govt Programs Mentor Research Grants Stipend Scholarships Fellowships TAship Tuition/Fees/Health Ins. Services College/Grad School
Private programs/funds State Federal Jobs Complementary to degree Get Ph.D. WHILE on the job Loans Types of Funding Pre-doctoral Fellowships, Scholarships First 3-4 years Dissertation Scholarships/fellowships Last 1-2 years
You University Department/ Program Alumni Investments Research Grants Students’ Tuition/Fees Philanthropy /Private Endowments/ Interest State Govt Programs Mentor Research Grants Stipend Scholarships Fellowships TAship Tuition/Fees/Health Ins. Loans Jobs Grants/Fellowships Scholarships Services College/Grad School
1)State Fellowship through School – 15K 2)State Fellowship through School – 15K 3)State Fellowship through School – 15K 4)State Fellowship through School – 15K 5)Teaching Assistantship – 13.5K Had to TA Department Funded 6)Research Assistantship – 20K (1/2 year) My Own Research Department “deal” with Mentor The Whole Time the Department was paying $13,500 Tuition
Doctoral trainees produces original research University gets $$ or reputation Mentor may get publications Trainees carry University’s reputation PhDs produce for economy/education Alumni donate to help future Philanthropists donate for education PhD income not traditionally high enough to recoup costs of education (particularly when you count in LOSS of income for 5 years..)
Sometimes HUGE stipend means you pay tuition Not all programs include health insurance If you change stipend sources, could influence tuition, travel, etc
Commitment Creativity Thoroughness Patience and emotional strength Long Term Planning
“Guarantees” a funding source Demonstrates initiative, discipline, and ambition Demonstrates marketability of ideas Experience integral to your professional career Makes you more competitive in future Success is self-perpetuating Gets you thinking about statements, etc.
Before or During studies Held to different criteria NSF – can write your way into any grad school…
Develop correct credentials! Identify Source Get Organized/Follow Rules! Solicit Recommenders Idea May be yours or mentors Creating a Proposal Following directions!!! Submitting proposal Receiving grant or feedback Revising if necessary Resubmission if necessary
Grades, courses taken, GPA GPA improvement is considered GRE Scores (study, retake if needed) Networking/ Letters of recommendation Participate in Co-ops/Programs/Internships McNair, MARC U*STAR, MBRS-RISE Attend Conferences Get Publications Thesis, scientific papers, abstracts Have a copy of these – you will submit! Personal/Volunteer experiences Teaching/mentoring others Health Related? Leadership/Organizing
Private Funding (Paul and Daisy Soros, GEM, etc.) Government Funding (NIH, NSF, US Homeland Security, etc.) Various Scholarships (HACU, university-based, etc.)
Internet (Google, msn) UTSA: http://www.utsa.edu/graduate/FutureStudentsAcademicPrograms/ scholarshipupdated.htmlhttp://www.utsa.edu/graduate/FutureStudentsAcademicPrograms/ scholarshipupdated.html UNT: http://www.opgf.unt.edu/http://www.opgf.unt.edu/ Cornell: http://www.gradschool.cornell.edu/?p=132http://www.gradschool.cornell.edu/?p=132 UCLA: http://www.gdnet.ucla.edu/asis/grapes/search.asphttp://www.gdnet.ucla.edu/asis/grapes/search.asp University Libraries offer books on grants University databases Conferences Mentors Fellowship program officers University Recruitment Programs
Rhodes Scholars http://www.rhodesscholar.org/ http://www.rhodesscholar.org/ Marshall http://www.marshallscholarship.org/ http://www.marshallscholarship.org/ Fulbright http://www.cies.org/about_fulb.htm http://www.cies.org/about_fulb.htm James Madison http://www.jamesmadison.com/ http://www.jamesmadison.com/ Harry S. Truman http://www.truman.gov/about/about.htm http://www.truman.gov/about/about.htm Andrew W. Mellon http://www.mellon.org/grant_programs/programs http://www.mellon.org/grant_programs/programs National Science Foundation http://www.nsf.gov/ http://www.nsf.gov/ National Institutes of Health http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-07-002.html http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-07-002.html
Pertinent Fields of study Foundation’s purposes and activities Eligibility requirements Number and types of awards awarded per year Rules (deadlines, summer work, etc.) Contact info TALK TO PROGRAM OFFICERS!
Know dates and deadlines Application Recommendations Pre-Applications? Know page limitations and rules How long can it be? Margins, font, font size Know materials requested (i.e. transcripts, C.V., etc.) and date requested or submitted How should it be submitted Together with rec? Mailed or Online? What formats? How many Copies? A track of any brain storming, rough drafting, and completion of essays Time, date, and content of any communication with program officers
Usually consist of Letter as well as ratings form Choose people who have credentials PH.D. better than Teaching Assistant Program Directors (Long term relationship) Choose people who know you! Ask Early Provide recommenders with a narrative of the fellowship, CV/Resume, personal statements “Remind” recommenders when near dates Thank your recommenders and any other staff (i.e. secretaries)
Abstract (summary of research) Research Plan (remember page limits) Specific Aims/Goals, Introduction/Significance/Background, Methods/Research Design, (Prelim data?), Research Plan, Timeline, Expected outcomes Budget Sometimes: Cover page Abstract for Laymen Letters of Commitment Biosketch of Proposed Mentor Description of research environment
Your Own Ideas: Research Experience Record down Ideas that you have! Coursework Readings Lectures/Seminars Discussion Groups Important national problems Extension of Research Mentor’s work If you know where you are going to go…
State a clear, focused, and attainable research question or hypothesis Research question can be original, a reassessment of a prior study, or both contain good ideas that embrace problems at the forefront of a field be enthusiastic
Starts with literature supporting the Big Picture Hones down to the rationale of your project Study detailed reviews of scientific literature, books, etc). Statements about the importance of the work proposed
Very important section of proposal (after the abstract) Describe previous research that led to your proposal Should demonstrate your ability to analyze and interpret data
Description of procedures and tests that will be used in the proposed work Special handling procedures Kinds of data expected How the data will be analyzed
Write about what you hypothesize/expect to see Write up what alternative results you might get Write about what you’d do if you GOT alternative results
To use “active” voice instead of “passive” Avoid jargon Write in regard to appearance Keep aware of the font Seek constructive criticism Read aloud to yourself Proofread and edit
Reports Publications CV Resumes “Additional comments” sheet Degree plan of study
thank your recommenders thank their secretaries be polite to project officers give yourself credit!