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1 Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction : Targeting the Ultra poor A BRAC INITIATIVE.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction : Targeting the Ultra poor A BRAC INITIATIVE."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction : Targeting the Ultra poor A BRAC INITIATIVE

2 2 Targeting the ultra poor Ultra Poverty : Bangladesh Scenario Ultra Poverty : Bangladesh Scenario Total Population : 130 million Total Population : 130 million Ultra Poverty : 26% of the population (World Bank 1995) Ultra Poverty : 26% of the population (World Bank 1995) The Ultra Poor spend 80% of their income on food The Ultra Poor spend 80% of their income on food Still fail to reach 80% of their recommended calorie intake. Still fail to reach 80% of their recommended calorie intake.

3 3 Targeting the ultra poor BRAC’s two major programs for addressing ultra poverty are : 1. Income Generation for Vulnerable Groups Development Program (IGVGD) since Special Investment Program for the Specially Targeted Ultra Poor (STUP) since 2002

4 4 Targeting the ultra poor IGVGD Program Model : Special features IGVGD Program Model : Special features Partnership program Partnership program Selection of beneficiaries done by the Government Selection of beneficiaries done by the Government Program implementation model developed jointly by all partners Program implementation model developed jointly by all partners Group approach Group approach Food support in terms of monthly wheat ration for 24months Food support in terms of monthly wheat ration for 24months Enterprise development Training Enterprise development Training Social Awareness raising education Social Awareness raising education Credit support Credit support Savings Savings Close Follow-up and supervision for 24 months Close Follow-up and supervision for 24 months

5 5 Targeting the ultra poor Major Lessons from IGVGD : Major Lessons from IGVGD : Most often the conventional microfinance program look at the ultra poor as high risk group Most often the conventional microfinance program look at the ultra poor as high risk group Disciplines of microfinance do not suit the livelihood pattern of the ultra poor Disciplines of microfinance do not suit the livelihood pattern of the ultra poor Ultra poor members do not feel confident about repayment of the loan Ultra poor members do not feel confident about repayment of the loan Absence of adequate social protection measures in existing MF interventions Absence of adequate social protection measures in existing MF interventions 60%-65% of IGVGD members can benefit from the IGVGD program model. The rest - drop out 60%-65% of IGVGD members can benefit from the IGVGD program model. The rest - drop out Something else needs to be done for those category of ultra poor who cannot make use of Food+credit model. Something else needs to be done for those category of ultra poor who cannot make use of Food+credit model.

6 6 Targeting the ultra poor THEREFORE, BRAC’S NEW TAILOR MADE APPROACH FOR THE ULTRA POOR SINCE 2002 : Special Investment Program for the Specially Targeted Ultra Poor

7 7 Targeting the ultra poor Objective of the program Creating solid economic and social capital base for the ultra poor population in rural Bangladesh

8 8 Targeting the ultra poor Definition of the Ultra Poor Definition of the Ultra Poor households with < 10 decimals of land households with < 10 decimals of land earns livelihood as beggar, day laborer, domestic aid earns livelihood as beggar, day laborer, domestic aid no productive assets no productive assets children of school-going age children of school-going age taking up paid work taking up paid work no adult male active member in the household no adult male active member in the household

9 9 Targeting the ultra poor Identification process  Districts and Sub-districts with severe food insecurity, and very high poverty level, identified  NGO Survey carried out to see the volume and types of NGO interventions addressing the ultra poor in those districts and sub-districts  More specific villages identified which had severe concentration of ultra poverty  Participatory Rural Appraisal meeting held with the villagers, Primary list of Ultra poor produced by the villagers through Social Mapping and wealth ranking  Door to door survey by BRAC's Staff / preliminary selection  Final Selection after Verification

10 10 Targeting the ultra poor Some Base line information : sample size 5000 Some Base line information : sample size 5000 Only 2.6% of the ultra poor household reported ever participation in NGOs Only 2.6% of the ultra poor household reported ever participation in NGOs 53.7% completely landless 53.7% completely landless 70% depends on day labourer for income source 70% depends on day labourer for income source 5.7% earns from begging 5.7% earns from begging 16.9% households reported always food deficit 16.9% households reported always food deficit 48% of household cannot afford two meals a day 48% of household cannot afford two meals a day only 6.8% pregnant mothers had their Blood pressure checked as ANC only 6.8% pregnant mothers had their Blood pressure checked as ANC Death rate of <1year children % Death rate of <1year children % 32.6% ultra poor member dies without accessing any sort of treatment 32.6% ultra poor member dies without accessing any sort of treatment 95% ultra poor have no fixed place for sanitation 95% ultra poor have no fixed place for sanitation 45.1% do not use delivery kit for child delivery 45.1% do not use delivery kit for child delivery 96.2%do not take iodized salt 96.2%do not take iodized salt

11 11 Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction Targeting the Ultra Poor Programme Coverage Programme Coverage Year : Total Year : Total Members Members served: ,000 25,000 25,000 70,000 served: ,000 25,000 25,000 70,000

12 12 Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction Targeting the Ultra Poor Support provided to the ultra poor Enterprise Development Training Enterprise Development Training Assets Transfer to start an enterprise Assets Transfer to start an enterprise Stipend Stipend Social awareness raising education and community mobilization Social awareness raising education and community mobilization Essential Health care, health education, financial assistance. Essential Health care, health education, financial assistance.

13 13 Targeting the ultra poor Enterprise Development Training Enterprise Development Training Class-room Training on Enterprise Development : 3-day basic ; 11 refresher courses in the following 11 months. Class-room Training on Enterprise Development : 3-day basic ; 11 refresher courses in the following 11 months. Hands on Training in terms of weekly individual follow-up Hands on Training in terms of weekly individual follow-up Ensuring technical support to run the enterprise Ensuring technical support to run the enterprise Create market link for different enterprises Create market link for different enterprises

14 14 Targeting the ultra poor Asset Transfer to the enterprise Asset Transfer to the enterprise Livestock rearing Livestock rearing Poultry Rearing Poultry Rearing Vegetable Cultivation Vegetable Cultivation Non-farm Activities Non-farm Activities Horticulture Nursery Horticulture Nursery Wage employment ( shoe factory, bakery, napkin centres) Wage employment ( shoe factory, bakery, napkin centres)

15 15 Targeting the ultra poor Some Exclusive Features of the Special Investment Component Value of asset : Average US$ 100 Value of asset : Average US$ 100 Support in kind Support in kind Weekly stipend for short term income support Weekly stipend for short term income support Close supervision for 24 months Close supervision for 24 months

16 16 Pattern of Enterprise choice

17 17 Targeting the ultra poor Tailor made Social Development program for the Ultra poor Tailor made Social Development program for the Ultra poor Weekly informal discussion session on paralegal issues Weekly informal discussion session on paralegal issues Confidence Building Training after 18 months. Confidence Building Training after 18 months. Local Community Leaders Workshop to activate and enhance the commitments of the local authorities. Local Community Leaders Workshop to activate and enhance the commitments of the local authorities. Legal support from BRAC’s Legal Aid Clinic. Legal support from BRAC’s Legal Aid Clinic. Popular Theatre Popular Theatre Advocacy workshops, seminars Advocacy workshops, seminars

18 18 Targeting the ultra poor Community Mobilization Through Village Poverty alleviation Committee Community Mobilization Through Village Poverty alleviation Committee 7-9 member Village Poverty alleviation committee formed 7-9 member Village Poverty alleviation committee formed - Social security ensured, social conflicts resolved by this committee - tube well, sanitary latrines installed through locally mobilized funds and resources. - houses repaired/ rebuilt through locally mobilized - funds and resources. - children of ultra poor families enrolled in schools by the committee

19 19 Targeting the ultra poor Tailor made Health Interventions for the ultra Poor Tailor made Health Interventions for the ultra Poor First strategy: Social Mobilization, Health Awareness raising, Basic Health Care. First strategy: Social Mobilization, Health Awareness raising, Basic Health Care. Second Strategy : Financial Assistance For Mild and Severe morbidity Second Strategy : Financial Assistance For Mild and Severe morbidity - Health ID Card for the Ultra Poor - Create Strong Linkage with other Health Service providers

20 20 Targeting the Ultra Poor Some findings from External Evaluation 2004 and 2005 Some findings from External Evaluation 2004 and 2005 The program is assisting the ultra poor members to move out of extreme poverty on a sustainable basis. The program is assisting the ultra poor members to move out of extreme poverty on a sustainable basis. Ultra Poor members are making solid progress in growing their asset base Ultra Poor members are making solid progress in growing their asset base 75% of members have built the foundation for a sustainable livelihood. 75% of members have built the foundation for a sustainable livelihood.

21 21 Targeting the Ultra Poor An indicator of improvement is diversification of IGAs. Over 90% members have more than two sources of income. An indicator of improvement is diversification of IGAs. Over 90% members have more than two sources of income. The dominant plan among STUP women looking to future investment is to acquire their own land The dominant plan among STUP women looking to future investment is to acquire their own land 84.5% now eats three meals a day (54% at base line) 84.5% now eats three meals a day (54% at base line) 89.4% of school aged children are enrolled in school ( 65% at base line) 89.4% of school aged children are enrolled in school ( 65% at base line)

22 22 Targeting the Ultra Poor Lessons Learned Lessons Learned Close supervision model is a must for any program for the ultra poor Close supervision model is a must for any program for the ultra poor supervision must address assessing the current needs and counseling on how to graduate beyond ultra poverty supervision must address assessing the current needs and counseling on how to graduate beyond ultra poverty Educating the ultra poor members about their future planning is crucial Educating the ultra poor members about their future planning is crucial

23 23 Targeting the Ultra Poor Lessons Learned Lessons Learned Special efforts needed to change the mind set of the participants who might consider the assets transfered to them as a “relief” item. Special efforts needed to change the mind set of the participants who might consider the assets transfered to them as a “relief” item. Community mobilization effort is necessary in order to ensure social security and to create enabling environment within the community. Community mobilization effort is necessary in order to ensure social security and to create enabling environment within the community.

24 24 Wider Learning Products Products Assets and Access Grants and Targeting Broad-based Intervention Village Institutions Management ManagementSupervision Training Training Empathy and Commitment

25 25 Targeting the ultra poor For more information about BRAC’s Ultra Poor Program Pls. see our website : THANKYOU


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