Presentation on theme: "1 Challenging the frontiers of poverty reduction Experiences from a BRAC Program Rabeya Yasmin, Program Coordinator Ultra Poor Programs BRAC."— Presentation transcript:
1 Challenging the frontiers of poverty reduction Experiences from a BRAC Program Rabeya Yasmin, Program Coordinator Ultra Poor Programs BRAC
2 An Introduction to BRAC BRAC : Founded in 1972, BRAC stands for - Building Resources Across the Countries Serving about 5 million poor people through Micro finance program in Bangladesh About 10 million poorest students are getting primary education in 34 thousand BRAC schools across the country More than 110 million poor people are getting Essential Health Care services from BRAC’s Health Programs BRAC is operating in other countries : Afghanistan, SriLanka, Tanzania, Uganda.
3 Extreme Poverty : Bangladesh Record Head count poverty decreasing : from 70% in 1973- 74 to 47% in 1995-96.( 2200 k.cal.) About 20% still remains below the lower poverty line : daily per capita calorie intake of 1805 k.cal.( BBS 2003) The Ultra Poor spend 80% of their income on food Still fail to reach 80% of their recommended calorie intake Ultra Poor are largely remaining left out of the mainstream development programmes
4 Background of CFPR Most often the conventional micro finance program view the ultra poor as high risk group Generally the disciplines of micro finance do not suit the livelihood pattern of the ultra poor
5 Therefore, BRAC’s new innovation is “A Pushing Down” strategy to combat ultra poverty A Program called : “Targeting the Ultra Poor”
6 Pushing down BRAC interventions to reach the ultra poor effectively Objectives Assist the ultra poor to improve their livelihoods by achieving positive economic, social and aspirational changes Assist the ultra poor to access mainstream development services
7 Coverage in the First Phase Duration: 5 year Year : 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Total Members served: 5000 5000 10,000 30,000 50,000 100,000 No. of districts : 3 7 12 1515 15
8 Pushing down to reach the Ultra Poor: Definition of the Ultra Poor Households with < 10 decimals of land. Those who earn livelihood as beggar, day laborer, domestic aid. Households with no productive assets. Children of school-going age taking up paid work. No adult active male member in the household
9 Pushing down to reach the Ultra Poor: A Brief Overview of HH Identification Process A. Geographical Area Selection: - Identifying areas with high incidents - NGO Survey conducted - Identify specific villages with high ultra poverty incidents B. Household Selection: -Participatory Rural Appraisal conducted following 3 steps: * Rapport building * Social Mapping * Wealth ranking -Door to door mini survey - verification
10 54 % completely landless 50% of household cannot afford two meals a day 70% depend on irregular day labour for income source 95% ultra poor have no fixed place for defecation Only 3% of the ultra poor household reported ever participation in development programs Some Baseline Information : 2002
11 Supports and services provided to ultra poor members through the pushing down strategies Enterprise Development Training Special Investment :Asset Transfer/ Stipend as short term income support Tailor made health care program Tailor made social development services
12 Some Special Features of Enterprise Development Training Programme 3-5 day class-room Training and monthly/quarterly refresher courses. Hands on Training throughout 24 month period. Ensuring technical support and input supplies to run the enterprise successfully.
13 Some Special Features of the Asset Transfer/ Special Investment Component Asset transfer as grant. Support in kind Weekly stipend for short term income support Close supervision for 24 months
14 Tailor Made Health Interventions for the Ultra Poor Members Promotive (eg. Health education, awareness raising for family planning, use of sanitary latrines, etc.) Preventive (Immunization, ANC, Vitamin A, etc.) Limited curative care (TB treatment by Health Volunteers, Access to qualified health practitioners, etc.) - Financial Assistance For Mild and Severe morbidity
15 Tailor Made Social Development Program for The Ultra Poor Members Social Awareness Education Community Mobilization (Village Poverty Reduction Committee) Confidence building
16 Tailor made Social Development: Community Mobilization for The Ultra Poor Members Village Poverty Reduction Committee to : -Provide social security, resolve social conflicts -Install tube well, sanitary latrines -Repair/ rebuild houses -Support during illness -Help enroll their children in school
17 Support programs Advocacy and Social Communication Action Research
18 A Repeat Survey on Nutritional Status by RED 2004 DescriptionBaseline 2002 Changed status 2004 Male – daily per capita calorie intake 1880 k.cal2024 k.cal Female – daily per capita calorie intake 1632 k.cal2236 k.cal Daily per capita Food expenditure Tk. 9Tk.13.5
19 CFPR Repeat survey 2005 by BRAC RED reveals : Description 20022005 Sanitary latrine used:2.32%78.36% Non latrine :94.82%19.33% Have savings :8.13%98.44% Loan to invest in IGAs :7.62%27.91% Could not eat for the whole day : 62.10%14.86%
20 STUP Graduation Matrix Ist Six Month -Selection of STUP members. -Enterprise dev. Training. -Asset transfer. -One-to-one Individual Follow- up(weekly). -Social dev.+ Health+Advocacy activities. 2 nd Six Month -Enterprise dev. Training/Refresher. -Asset transfer. -One-to-one Individual Follow-up. -Social dev.+ Health+Advocacy activities. 3 rd Six Month -Enterprise dev. Training/Refresher. -Individual Follow-up (weekly). -Informal group discussion. -Social dev.+ Health+Advocacy activities. -Confidence building training 4 th Six Month -Enterprise dev. Training/Refresher. -Individual Follow-up. -Social dev.+ Health+Advocacy activities. -Formal weekly group meeting (VO). -Loan and savings activities in group.
21 What makes the programme work Thoughtful program design taking past experiences of BRAC Careful staff recruitment and development process Effective monitoring and supervision Close Coordination Continuous research Enormous support from development partners
22 Key Lessons Learned The ultra Poor are not homogeneous group Special efforts needed to change the “mind set at all levels”. Close follow-up model is ‘a must’ for any program for the ultra poor. Educating/assisting the ultra poor on making their future plan is critical Social mobilization is necessary to create an enabling environment for the ultra poor
23 Future Challenges and CFPR Phase II Rethinking targeting Capturing diversity Continuing health support for the graduates Capacity building