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Unit one 8/16/20131.  What is a system?  What is an example of a non-living system?  How does a malfunction in one part affect the whole system? 

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Presentation on theme: "Unit one 8/16/20131.  What is a system?  What is an example of a non-living system?  How does a malfunction in one part affect the whole system? "— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit one 8/16/20131

2  What is a system?  What is an example of a non-living system?  How does a malfunction in one part affect the whole system?  Give a few examples of how human body systems work together.  Name the eleven human body systems 8/16/20132

3  Integumentary system,  Skeletal system,  Muscular system,  Nervous system,  Endocrine system,  Cardiovascular system,  Lymphatic system and immunity,  Respiratory system,  Digestive system,  Urinary system,  Reproductive system  Name the eleven human body systems 8/16/20133

4  By donating one pint of blood 4 lives can be saved  The human heart beats roughly 35 million times a year  It is not possible to tickle yourself because your brain warns the rest of the body and by doing so your brain will ignore this sensation 8/16/20134

5  Split into groups of four  Students will randomly draw a system-  Your group assignment is to focus on and find “Amazing Facts” about those systems 8/16/20135

6  Activity 1.1.1. Amazing Facts  List the major organs in your systems  Discuss top five Amazing Facts for each system  Think about how your Primary System can act like a Secondary System  Create this Presentation on Your Web Portfolio (Instruction for creating this Web Portfolio is on the Weebly)

7 1. In what ways do the parts of the human body system work together to carry out a specific function? 2. In what ways do different human body systems work together to complete specific functions?

8  How do you give someone directions?  How do you explain location or directions on the human body?

9  Equipment  Manikins  Post-it Flags  Colored Pencils  Documents  Activity 1.1.2 (on the weebly)  Adoption Certificates  Body Organizer

10  Assemble Manikin  Name your Manikin-place your manikin’s name on the base  Complete Adoption Certificates  Always store manikins in there proper place  All Manikins look the same now but will soon take on their own personalities. 8/16/201310

11  Pair Up with your Manikin Partner  Brainstorm  Complete Activity 1.1.2

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14 3. How can directional terms and regional terms help describe location in the body? 4. What features of structure and function are common to all humans?

15  The basic processes of the human body unites us as humans, but tiny differences in our ▪ appearance ▪ tissues ▪ cells make us truly unique 8/16/201315

16  Manikins  Clay &Clay tools  Colored Pencils  Microscope  Tissue Slides  Body System Organizer -Skeletal View  Activity 1.2.1  Microscope Resource Sheet  Inspiration

17 For windows, go to this link,  http://download.inspiration.com/download/wi ndows/inspiration9_win_cd.exe For Macintosh go to this link,  http://download.inspiration.com/download/m ac/inspiration9_mac_cd.dmg  14-digit subscription license: 2633D1237J9601

18  Systems (What makes up systems)  Organs (What makes up Organs)  Tissues

19  When you think of human identity, what comes to mind  At the beginning of the week we discussed systems and organ structures that are common to all humans.  Over the year we will be looking at processes that occur in all of our bodies.  But what makes us special?

20  Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure that work together to perform a specific function.  There are four main tissue types:  Epithelium  Connective tissue  Muscle  Nervous tissue

21  Epithelium or epithelial tissue,  forms the linings, coverings, and glandular tissue of the body.  One type of epithelium forms the outer layer of the skin  Another type of epithelium lines the air sacs of the lungs  Cells in epithelium are packed tightly together to form continuous sheets

22  Connective tissue protects, supports, and binds together other body tissues.  Connective tissue is made up of different types of cells in varying amounts of a nonliving substance around the cells, called the matrix.  Examples of connective tissue include:  Bone  Cartilage  Adipose tissue (fat)  Blood

23  Muscle tissue is specialized to contract and cause movement.  There are three main types of muscle tissue:  Skeletal muscle  Cardiac muscle  Smooth muscle  Can you guess the location and function of each muscle type?

24  Nervous tissue is composed of specialized cells called neurons that receive and send electrical signals in the body.  Nervous tissue responds to stimuli and transmits impulses and together with supporting cells, makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

25 1. What are the main types of tissue in the human body? 2. How does the structure of a type of human tissue relate to its function in the body?

26  Pair up  Complete Part 1 only  Concept Map  View prepared slides  Link for more slide views  http://histology.osumc.edu/histology/Hum anHisto/index.htm# http://histology.osumc.edu/histology/Hum anHisto/index.htm#

27  Facial features  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_HaJT7 OVIQ&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_HaJT7 OVIQ&feature=player_detailpage

28  Complete through question 15  Discuss proper use of clay and tools and Manikin Rules  Let’s create a face-  Using Teacher Building Instructions  Compare Manikins

29  Adipose tissue- Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat  Connective Tissue- Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix  Epithelial Tissue- Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities  Tissue- An integrated group of cells with a common structure and function

30  #3 How does the distribution and structure of different types of tissue in the body contribute to personal identity.  #4 “What are the functions of the human skeletal system?”

31  Remember bones are a type connective tissue  What do you know about the skeletal system  Name this bone

32  Computer with internet  Anatomy in Clay Maniken  Body System graphic Organizer (Skeletal View)  Colored pencils 8/16/201332

33  Research the listed bones  Label you Manikins  Quiz yourself/partner

34  #5 “What are the main bones of the human skeletal system”

35  Review Learning from Bones http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/education/anthro pological/index.html. Located on your activity. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/education/anthro pological/index.html  Read the Introduction  Career Journal- Forensic Anthropologist  Forensic Video  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cogeHybySI&feature =player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cogeHybySI&feature =player_detailpage  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8IHPq9VgWI&feature =player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8IHPq9VgWI&feature =player_detailpage

36  #6 What is forensic anthropology and how does the field relate to human body systems?  #7 How can features of bone be used to determine information about a person’s gender, ethnicity, age, or stature?

37  Each group will use the laminated instruction sheets to take measurements of the bone at each station  You will need Project 1.2.3 Student Data Sheet  Split into three teams  Now split into four groups  You will be trying to determine the  Age  Race  Sex  Height  2 students at each station to gather measurements of:  Skull  Femur  Pelvis  Humerus  Tibia

38  We will determine proximal age, height, and race of our victims.  Race and Ethnicity  Mongoloid (Asian) is an anthropological term for a group that includes Chinese, Koreans, Japanese, Tibetan, Eskimo and some Native Americans.  Negroid (Black) is a classification including Sub-Saharan African and Afro-Caribbean peoples and their descendants.  Caucasoid (White) refers to people of Anglo or Caucasian descent from Europe, parts of North Africa, Western Asia and India and their descendants. 8/16/201338

39  forensic anthropologist, Diane France http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcnGybzF hjM watch 10min50sec then again at 34min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcnGybzF hjM

40  Discuss findings  Compare and discuss differences in male and female bones.  Why may the three-race model no longer be accurate  Discuss differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Data  What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research? Quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers. Qualitative Research on the other hand generates non-numerical data. 8/16/201340

41  Axial Skeleton- The skeleton of the trunk and head.  Appendicular Skeleton- Bones of the limbs and limb girdles that are attached to the axial skeleton  Femur- The proximal bone of the hind or lower limb that is the longest and largest bone in the human body, extends from the hip to the knee  Forensic Anthropology- The branch of physical anthropology in which anthropological data, criteria, and techniques are used to determine the sex, age, genetic population, or ancestry of skeletal or biological materials in questions of civil or criminal law  Humerus-The longest bone of the upper arm or forelimb extending from the shoulder to the elbow 8/16/201341

42  Pelvis-A basin-shaped structure in the skeleton of many vertebrates that is formed by the pelvic girdle together with the sacrum and often various coccygeal and caudal vertebrae and that in humans is composed of the two hip bones bounding it on each side and in front while the sacrum and coccyx complete it behind  Skull- The skeleton of the head forming a bony case that encloses and protects the brain and chief sense organs and supports the jaws  Tibia- The inner and usually larger of the two bones of the leg between the knee and ankle that articulates above with the femur and below with the talus -- called also shinbone 8/16/201342

43  Equations  In the 1950’s Dr. Trotter developed mathematical formulas that correlated body height to the length of their arm and leg bones.  To Complete Parts I - Pair into groups of 2  You will measure your height in cm and then the femur, humerus, and radius bones in cm to use to calculate your height. ( 1 foot = 30.48 cm)  Like in criminal investigations an estimated range of height is given. Like 5’9” to 6’2”  Use the + and – formulas to get your error value for minimal and maximal height range. 8/16/201343

44  Part II You will use a formula specific to Gender and Ethnicity.  Then using an Excel file you will develop Your Own Formula.  “How well do these equations work?” What equation was most accurate? 8/16/201344

45  Revisited  #3 How does the distribution and structure of different types of tissue in the body contribute to personal identity. 8/16/201345

46  Approximately 1cc of the DNA sample was taken from Skeletal remains and labeled  The pieces were stored in EtOH and frozen -20°C  Samples were transported to OCTC in refrigerated containers for genetic analysis 8/16/201346

47  Agarose A polysaccharide obtained from seaweed that is used as the supporting medium in gel electrophoresis.  Biometrics The measurement and analysis of unique physical or behavioral characteristics (as fingerprint or voice patterns) especially as a means of verifying personal identity.  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins. 8/16/201347

48  Gel electrophoresis The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.  Restriction enzyme A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA.  Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes). 8/16/201348

49  What level of organization comes below tissues. CELLS  Now- Figuratively zoom in on the cell and describe the genetic material found inside the cell.  Chromosome  Gene  Protein  DNA 8/16/201349

50  List sources of DNA evidence  Skin cells  Hair  Blood  Semen  Old tissue such as bone but amplified using Polymerase Change Reaction (PCR) 8/16/201350

51  How does this genetic material inside the cell relate to overall function of the human body  Chromosome ▪ Gene ▪ Protein ▪ DNA 8/16/201351

52  Chromosomes: are 23 pairs considered the building blocks of the human body. They are long pieces of DNA found in the center (nucleus) of cells.  Chromosomes functions are based on the precise structure of the organelle that carries out that function. 8/16/201352

53  A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism.  Genes are the functional unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring through mitosis. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein and thus cells 8/16/2013 53 Hot tip : genetic info is coded in DNA by a sequence of Nucleotides

54  Proteins are constructed from a set of 20 amino acids like long necklaces with different shaped beads.  To become active, proteins must twist and fold into their final conformation  Proteins that are donut shaped, enable them to form a complete ring around the DNA and regulate the activity of genetic material.  This DNA polymerase III cinches around DNA and moves along the strands as it copies the genetic material. 8/16/201354

55  DNA is like an architect's blueprint. Think of it as an Owner's Manual for your body. 8/16/201355 May want to remember: DNA is made of 2 components, Phosphate molecules and deoxyribose sugars.

56  DNA is a unique code of over 3 billion base pairs that provide a genetic blueprint of an individual.  It’s function in the human body includes coding for proteins. It holds the instructions of an organism's development and reproduction therefore its survival.  It also transfers genetic messages to all other cells in the human body. 8/16/201356

57  1. What is the structure and function of DNA  2. How does DNA differ from person to person  3. What role does DNA play in our Identity 8/16/201357

58  taking up too much sample with the micropipettor,  taking up air in addition to the sample,  not completely expelling the sample,  sucking the sample out of the well,  poking the pipette tip through the bottom of the gel well. 8/16/201358

59  Place a new tip on the micropipettor, being careful to not touch the tip to any surface.  Depress the plunger to the first stop and hold it in this position.  Dip the tip of the micropipettor into the top of the solution to be transferred.  Gradually release the plunger and draw the fluid into the tip, making sure to keep the tip in the solution.  Slide the pipet tip out along the inside wall of the reagent tube to dislodge any excess droplets adhering to the outside of the tip.  Check to make sure there are no air bubbles in the sample in the tip. If there are air bubbles, expel the sample using the directions below and restart procedure. 8/16/201359

60  Insert the tip of the micropipettor into the area in which you want to expel the liquid.  Slowly depress the plunger to the first stop to expel the sample and continue to depress the plunger to the second stop to ensure all of the liquid is expelled.  Hold the plunger in the depressed position.  Slide the micropipettor out with the plunger depressed. Do not release the plunger from the depressed position to avoid sucking any liquid back into the tip.  Once the tip is out of the liquid, release the plunger.  Eject the tip into the proper disposal area by pressing down on the tip-ejector button 8/16/201360

61  Set fake gel into casting trey  Secure casting trey into chamber well- line up the notch  Pour water into chamber until it fills BOTH ends and covers gel completely  Micropipette  Secure tip until “click”  Set measurement and pick-up 20-35 uL of practice loading dye  Don’t push all the way down 8/16/201361

62  Practice filling each well  Don’t poke holes in gel  Don’t create air bubbles  Keep the plunger depressed until after you have raised the micropipettor away from the gel 8/16/201362

63  A Biochemical technique used to amplify the number of copies of a specific region of DNA generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in order to be adequately tested.  Named after the enzyme, polymerase, which copies DNA in cells.  It’s a chain reaction because multiple events occur in succession, over and over again in the same sequential order.  Each time the series of events is completed, one cycle has been completed.

64  Completed in a thermal cycler in a lab.  What are some of the uses:  Cloning  Diagnosis of hereditary diseases  Paternity testing  Diagnosis of infectious diseases  Identification of finger prints  Forensic sciences 8/16/201364

65 1. DNA is obtained from the skeletal remain 2. Gene is amplified by PCR 3. DNA is cut in specific places by the use of restriction enzymes. 4. The restriction enzyme recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts DNA Restriction enzymes are derived from Bacteria

66  The process where DNA can is separated according to size and electrical charge by applying an electric current to them.  The current forces the molecules through pores in a thin layer of gel.  DNA is negatively charged so it runs toward the positive pole

67 A B Polymorphism = Difference in length of fragments Restriction Enzymes are derived from bacteria with the ability to cut DNA from invading organisms such as a viruses, before the virus takes control of the cell Restriction Enzymes

68  To visualize the DNA fragments and sort them according to size  DNA samples are loaded into a gel and exposed to electrical currents  Fragments run through the gel at different rates  smaller = faster 8/16/201368

69  Gloves throughout Lab  Power source  Chamber & casting trey  Agarose gel with wells  Combs  TAE Buffer  Distilled H20  Micropipette and tips  Dye  Light box  DNA RFLP Samples 8/16/201369

70 8/16/201370

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72  Activity 1.3.1.  Student Response Sheet  Student read Introduction 8/16/201372

73  1. Obtain 4 micro-centrifuge tubes  2. Label tubes 1-4 Very Important: Note the content of each tube in your lab journal. You will need to know what is in each tube. Don’t get them mixed up!!!  3.Dispense Sterile Water into 4 tubes.  4 Dispense DNA and Enzymes into 4 tubes.  5. Incubate in 37 ̊ water bath X 30 min.  6. Begin Student Resource Sheet. 8/16/201373

74  1. Obtain your 4 tubes  2. Heat samples plus the DNA marker and DNA extracted from bone for 2 min at 65 degrees C  3. While cooling practice loading gels  4. Draw diagram in lab journal Clearly indicating which sample is in each well. 8/16/201374

75  Don’t poke through the agarose  Keep plunger depressed until after you have raised the micropipetter. To prevent the re- uptake of sample out of the well, remember to keep the plunger depressed until you completely lift the micropipettor out of the gel  Be sure the voltage is set at 150 and the timer is set for 15 minutes 8/16/201375

76  Check polarity! Be sure the DNA sample is at top of the negative pole (black) and will run down toward the positive  Alarm will sound after 15 minutes…check back every 2-5m if incomplete  Create staining solution while you wait: 10mL of 10X Flashblue concentrate + 90mL distilled water  Turn off the power supply when the dye is near the bottom edge of the gel  Be careful to not allow the dye to run off the edge of the gel 8/16/201376

77 1. Place gel in trey, and tray in chamber. 2. Be sure the wells are at the negative end of the gel and the trey is secure in the notch 3. Fill with TAE Buffer this time, cover gel completely 4. Fill the wells with the corresponding sample 5. Copy table in notes!!!! 8/16/201377

78  If the polarity is backwards, the DNA will migrate out of the well and off the short end of the gel. If the mistake is caught in time, the polarity can be reversed and the DNA will migrate back into the well and then through the longer portion of the gel. 8/16/201378

79  The DNA fragments are then stained with a dye and can be observed as lines or bands in the gel when view on a light box. 8/16/201379

80  Often the DNA fragment bands can be observed directly after electrophoresis without further treatment. If the bands are faint or appear to be missing, the gel can be soaked in the diluted Carolina Blue dye for 30 minutes and then washed with distilled water 8/16/201380

81  8/16/201381

82  You will actually find that the gel results show that both of the missing persons match the DNA fingerprint of the DNA from bone digested with Enzyme 1  NOTE that Lane D and F are the same. (see the example gel picture below).  You can see how this can happen even if the DNA sequences are different. 8/16/201382

83  You will have to look to the results for Enzyme 2 to make their final conclusions regarding identity.  Gel results show that when using a second restriction enzyme on the same DNA, only one RFLP matches that from the bone sample. 8/16/201383

84 8/16/201384 Lane 1 Standard DNA Marker Lane 2 DNA from Bone cut w Enzyme 1 Lane 3 DNA from bone cut w Enzyme 2 Lane 4 Missing person 1 w Enzyme 1 Lane 5 Missing person 1 w Enzyme 2 Lane 6 Missing person 2/Enzyme 1 Lane 7 Missing person 2/Enzyme 2

85  4.How can tools of molecular biology be used to compare the DNA of 2 individuals?  5.What are restriction enzymes?  6.What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms ? 8/16/201385

86  Gel Electrophoresis Virtual Lab  http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/lab/gel http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/lab/gel  DNA Interactive: Gel Electrophoresis  http:www.dnai.org/text/mediashowcase/index2.ht ml?id=1014 8/16/201386

87  7. What is gel electrophoresis and how can the results of this technique be interpreted? 8/16/201387

88  Analyze the DNA  Discuss results and conclusions  Conclusion Questions 8/16/201388

89  Introduces Activity 1.3.2 Careers in Identity. Career Journal for Forensic Anthropologist  Distribute the Biomedical Sciences Documentation Protocol and review documentation of their sources.  Distribute Rubric and go over grading  Students complete Activity 1.3.2 individually. 8/16/201389

90  Gives your work credibility  Allows reader to look up sources to obtain more information  Citation gives credit to original author.  Source is documented in 2 places in APA style.  1st, In the text and 2 nd at the end of document in the reference list. 8/16/2013 90

91  In this project you will be a team of 3 to design a security plan using biometrics for your new Client. Using:  Power Point Presentation  Oral Presentation  Answering any questions  Convince you client to buy  Brain storm: What body systems are involved in Biometric Techniques. 8/16/201391

92  8. How can the field of biometrics be used to verify and protect identity? 8/16/201392

93  Discuss Ethical Issues in biometrics and the use if biology in identity.  Discuss how DNA can be used in biometrics.  Debate how close we are to Identifying people in an instant using DNA sample. 8/16/201393


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