# Background for Glass Analysis Quiz Monday 10/03. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. – Mass: the number of particles in something, how.

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Background for Glass Analysis Quiz Monday 10/03

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. – Mass: the number of particles in something, how much there is of an object – Space: scientific word for “space” is volume, which describes the size of a substance. – Both of these variables can be observed and measured

 We can measure mass using a triple beam balance or digital scale.  Mass is measured in grams (SI Unit)

 We can measure volume using a ruler or a graduated cylinder  Volume can be measure in two ways: Volume of a regular solid (cube): L x W x H unit: cm 3

Volume of a irregular solid (rock):

 Density is defined as mass per unit of volume  The formula for density is… density = mass volume

 If the density of the object is greater than that of the fluid, the object will sink.  If the density of the object is equal to that of the fluid, the object will neither sink or float (suspended)  If the density of the object is less than that of the fluid, the object will float.

SOL ID LIQUIDGAS

 Plasma least common form on Earth - - but most common in the universe radiation from the sun, light from a fluorescent light, stars

 Amorphous solid Greek amorphos, from a- (without) + morph ē (form) Non-crystalline solid Can change shape with heating Heating at a range of temperatures- not a set temperature like a crystalline solid

Behaves more like liquids with high viscosities EX: honey, syrup, & gels

 1. Physical Property: any property of an object that can be observed without changing it’s composition (without changing what the object or substance is made up of) EX: weight, volume, color, boiling or melting point, viscosity, brittleness, buoyancy, phase changes Matter is Classified into 2 groups

 For the forensic scientist, the need to find and measure those properties that will associate one glass fragment with another--also minimizing or eliminating other sources.  To compare glass fragments, a forensic scientist evaluates two important physical properties: density and refractive index.

 Chemical Property: a characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical change Flammable Reaction to light Reaction to sound

 Chemical Change: a change of one substance to another, an “unexpected” change  Burning, fizzing, or popping (fireworks exploding) are helpful indicators that a new substance is produced.

 Routine drug tests for cocaine or heroine- fast test before sending to lab for detailed analysis  Uses a chemical reagent called Marquis reagent.  Chemical reaction occurs turning the unknown sample various colors detecting the type of drug Can test for ecstasy, meth, aspirin, codeine, LSD, morphine

 Ancient Greek philosophers suggested that earth, air, water, and fire as matters fundamental building blocks

 Atom = basic unit of matter

 Elements: Substance in which all atoms in a sample are alike  Compounds: substance made of two or more atoms (two or more elements) Water: Hydrogen and Oxygen Salt: Sodium and Chlorine

Molecules

 Silica(SiO 2 ) is a common fundamental constituent of glass. Element or compound? FUN FACT: In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching root like structures called fulgurites. Transfer of a substance into glass

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